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Amedeo Modigliani

Italy (Livorno 1884 -  Parigi 1920 ) Wikipedia® : Amedeo Modigliani
MODIGLIANI Amedeo Madame Hanka Zborowska

Christie's /Jun 22, 2016
6,332,478.74 - 8,865,470.24
10,459,390.25

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Artworks in Arcadja
759

Some works of Amedeo Modigliani

Extracted between 759 works in the catalog of Arcadja
Amedeo Modigliani - L'italienne

Amedeo Modigliani - L'italienne

Original 1926
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Lot number: 143
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After Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920), by Jacques Villon (1875-1963) L'Italienne (G & P. E650), 1926-27 Aquatint in colors on wove paper, from the unsigned edition (there was also a signed edition of 200), with the blindstamp of the publisher, Chalcographie du Louvre, with full margins, framed. 19 1/2 x 12 1/8in sheet 24 3/4 x 18in
Amedeo Modigliani - Portrait De Baranowski

Amedeo Modigliani - Portrait De Baranowski

Original 1918
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Lot number: 10
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Amedeo Modigliani PORTRAIT DE BARANOWSKI 1884 - 1920 signed Modigliani (lower left) oil on canvas 112 by 56cm. 44 1/4 by 22in. Painted in 1918. Leopold Zborowski, Paris Samuel Bing, Paris Mare, Paris Mark Ollivert, Paris Galerie Zak, Paris (acquired by 1929) Madame Michaux, Paris (acquired by 1930) The Storran Gallery, London Sir Robert & Lady Sainsbury, London (purchased from the above on 20th February 1937) Robert & Lisa Sainsbury Charitable Trust, Sainsbury Centre for the Visual Arts, Norwich (a bequest from the above. Sold: Sotheby's, London, 30th June 1998, lot 17) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner Exhibited Paris, Galerie Bing & Cie, Modigliani, 1925, no. 3 Zurich, Kunsthaus, Italienische Maler, 1927, no. 101 Venice, XVII Esposizione Biennale Internazionale d'Arte, Mostra individuale di Amedeo Modigliani, 1930, no. 24, illustrated in the catalogue (titled Ritratto d'uomo) London, The Storran Gallery, Modigliani, 1937, no. 3, illustrated in the catalogue London, Gimpel Fils, A. Modigliani, 1948, no. 1 London, Ben Uri Art Gallery, Famous Jewish Artists of the Past, 1949, no. 20 London, Tate Gallery; Leicester, City Art Gallery & Manchester, City Art Gallery, Modern Italian Art, 1950, no. 68, illustrated in the catalogue Glasgow, McLellan Galleries, Festival of Jewish Arts, 1951, no. 90, illustrated in the catalogue Rome, VI Quadriennale Nazionale d'Arte di Roma, 1951-52, no. 14 London, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 20th Century Form. Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, 1953, no. 33 London, Roland, Browse & Delbanco, Modigliani, 1955, no. 21 Bern, Kunsthalle, Modigliani, Campigli, Sironi, 1955, no. 20 Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Cent tableaux de Modigliani, 1958, no. 65, illustrated in the catalogue Milan, Palazzo Reale, Mostra di Amedeo Modigliani, 1958, no. 42, illustrated in the catalogue (titled Ritratto del pittore Baranowski and with incorrect measurements) Rome, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Modigliani, 1959, no. 31, illustrated in the catalogue (titled Ritratto del pittore Baranowski and with incorrect measurements) Boston, Museum of Fine Arts & Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Modigliani. Paintings and Drawings, 1961, no. 27, illustrated in the catalogue London, Tate Gallery, Private Views. Works from the Collections of Twenty Friends of the Tate Gallery, 1963, no. 167 Edinburgh, Royal Scottish Academy & London, Tate Gallery, Modigliani, 1963, no. 43 Otterlo, Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, Collectie Robert & Lisa Sainsbury, 1966, no. 34, illustrated in the catalogue Tokyo, Museum of Art, Amedeo Modigliani et l'Ecole de Paris, 1991 Lugano, Museo d'Arte Moderna della Città di Lugano, Amedeo Modigliani, 1999, no. 59, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Paris, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, L'Ecole de Paris, 2000-01 Paris, Musée du Luxembourg, L'ange au visage grave, 2002-03, no. 71, illustrated in colour in the catalogue (titled Pierre-Edouard Baranowski) Rome, Complesso del Vittoriano, Modigliani, 2006, no. 31, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Tokyo, The National Art Center & Osaka, The National Museum of Art, Modigliani et le primitivisme, 2008, no. 42, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Literature Waldemar Georges, 'Modigliani', in L'amour de l'art, Paris, October 1925, illustrated p. 387 Arthur Pfannstiel, Modigliani, Paris, 1929, listed p. 45 Giovanni Scheiwiller, 'Amedeo Modigliani', in Arte Moderna Italiana, Milan, 1932, illustrated pl. XXVI Giovanni Scheiwiller, 'Amedeo Modigliani', in Arte Moderna Italiana, Milan, 1935, illustrated pl. XXVII Giovanni Scheiwiller, 'Amedeo Modigliani', in Arte Moderna Italiana, Milan, 1936, illustrated pl. XXVIII E. H. Ramsden, An Introduction to Modern Art, London, New York & Toronto, 1940, illustrated pl. XXI Giovanni Scheiwiller, 'Amedeo Modigliani, in Arte Moderna Italiana, Milan, 1942, illustrated pl. 42 Giovanni Scheiwiller, 'Amedeo Modigliani', in Arte Moderna Italiana, Milan, 1950, illustrated pl. XXVI Enzo Carli, Modigliani, Rome, 1952, illustrated pl. 23 'Omaggio a Amedeo Modigliani', in Rivista di Livorno, Livorno, July-August 1954, illustrated pl. 13 Eric Newton, 'Unbeaten Tracks', in Time and Tide, London, 2nd April 1955 Arthur Pfannstiel, Modigliani et son œuvre, Paris, 1956, no. 276, listed p. 144 The Times, London, 21st April 1958, illustrated p. 3 Franco Russoli, Modigliani, Milan, 1958, illustrated pl. 26 Ambrogio Ceroni, Amedeo Modigliani, Milan, 1958, no. 125, illustrated fig. 125 Connaissance des Arts, no. 106, Paris, December 1960, illustrated p. 146 The Tatler, London, 17th April 1963, illustrated p. 155 The Times, London, 18th April 1963, illustrated Ambrogio Ceroni, Amedeo Modigliani. Dessins et sculptures, Milan, 1965, illustrated p. 19, in a photograph of the 1925 Galerie Bing exhibition in Paris Corrado Pavolini, Modigliani, Milan, 1966, illustrated in colour pl. 23 Epoca, Milan, 10th September 1967, illustrated Pierre Sichel, Modigliani. A Biography of Amedeo Modigliani, London, 1967, discussed p. 469 Alfred Werner, Amedeo Modigliani, London, 1967, illustrated in colour p. 145 Csorba Geza, Modigliani, Prague, 1969, no. 43 Leone Piccioni & Ambrogio Ceroni, I dipinti di Modigliani, Milan, 1970, no. 280, illustrated p. 102 Joseph Lanthemann, Modigliani. Catalogue raisonné. Sa vie, son Oeuvre complet, son art, Barcelona, 1970, no. 286, illustrated p. 236 Modigliani exhibition - Love and Nostalgia for Montparnasse (exhibition catalogue), Daimaru Department Store, Tokyo & Osaka, 1979, illustrated in a photograph of the 1925 Galerie Bing exhibition in Paris Carol Mann, Modigliani, London, 1980, no. 123, illustrated p. 169 Alfred Werner, Amedeo Modigliani, New York, 1985, illustrated in colour p. 117 Christian Parisot, Modigliani. Catalogue raisonné, Florence, 1988, vol. II, no. 37/1918, illustrated in colour p. 221 Christian Parisot, Modigliani. Catalogue raisonné, Livorno, 1990, vol. I, illustrated in colour p. 190 Osvaldo Patani, Amedeo Modigliani. Catalogo generale dipinti, Milan, 1991, no. 291, illustrated p. 290 Stephen Butler, Modigliani, London, 1994, illustrated in colour p. 104 Steven Hooper (ed.), Robert and Lisa Sainsbury Collection, New Haven & London, 1997, vol. I, no. 133, illustrated in colour p. 221 ‘To do any work, I must have a living person, I must be able to see him opposite me.’’’’’’’’ Amedeo Modigliani ‘[Modigliani’’’’’’’’s] paintings are consistently characterised by great tenderness. Such feelings inform this portrait.’’’’’’’’ Graham Beal in Steven Hooper (ed.), Robert and Lisa Sainsbury Collection, New Haven & London, 1997, vol. I, , p. 220 Portrait de Baranowski is a wonderfully elegant and poignant composition that powerfully synthesises all those characteristic traits which Modigliani developed in his post-1916 portraits: the geometric simplification of the human form, the S-shaped curve of the body inscribed by a flowing melodic line, the elongated neck and face with almond, vacant eyes that render the sitter with an enigmatic and impenetrable mood, and the stylised, accentuated line of the nose and the pursed, small mouth with sensuous lips. The portrait, which was one of the thirty-nine paintings exhibited at the 1930 Venice Biennale in a special one-man show dedicated to Modigliani, shows a young man with fragile good looks, well-dressed in a casual manner, seated at a table with a pensive, introspective air. The artist’’’’’’’’s own striking presence, his innate sense of elegance and his profound knowledge of poetry had made a strong impression on all who came across him when he first arrived in Paris. It is possible that Modigliani, increasingly burdened by illness, may have recognised in the figure of the youthful Baranowski the image of his earlier self. Marc Restellini wrote about the present work and its sitter: ‘The painter Pierre-Edouard Baranowski, known as Bara, was a member of the Parisian Polish colony. A habitué of the Montparnasse cafés in the 1920s, he presumably met Modigliani through the latter’’’’’’’’s friend and dealer, Léopold Zborowski, or perhaps through Moïse Kisling. This is the only known portrait of Baranowski, who, between 1920 and 1929, frequently exhibited at the Salon d’’’’’’’’Automne, the Salon des Tuileries and the Salon des Indépendants, showing flower paintings, still lifes and landscapes. The model, with his androgynous grace, occupies the entire space of the painting. The almost Mannerist preciousness of his pose – down-turned face, just a hint of a smile, left hand hanging limply and à l’’’’’’’’artiste haircut – is tempered by the rigour of the colours: the black of the jacket and cravate, the light blue of the eyes and of the background, the dark blue of the trousers, and finally, the pallor of Baranowski’’’’’’’’s skin, further emphasized by the white of his shirt’’’’’’’’ (M. Restellini in Modigliani, The Melancholy Angel (exhibition catalogue), op. cit., p. 320). By the time the present work was painted, Montparnasse - where Modigliani had been living since 1909 - had earned a reputation as the home of avant-garde artistic life and the centre of cosmopolitan, bohemian culture in Paris. The Café de la Rotonde in particular, situated on the Boulevard de Montparnasse, had become a regular meeting place for Modigliani and his fellow artists including Chaïm Soutine, Pablo Picasso, Max Jacob, André Salmon, Diego Rivera and Fernand Léger. Modigliani portrayed a number of figures that formed his social and artistic circle, creating a kind of visual history of Parisian Left Bank culture during the early twentieth century. The present work is a quintessential example of Modigliani’’’’’’’’s role as a chronicler of the vie bohème of Montparnasse, and it was probably executed before the artist’’’’’’’’s departure for the south of France in March 1918. The sitter’’’’’’’’s gentle youthful looks inspired Modigliani to create one of his most outstanding portraits, combining the characteristics of an individual with the lyricism of a poetic ideal. By 1918 Modigliani was thirty-four: his health and looks were destroyed by heavy drinking and drug taking. Many of those who sat for him during the last two years of his life were young, unknown and of very modest origins, their faces marked by what the writer Ilya Ehrenburg has called a ‘hunted tenderness’’’’’’’’. Among all those young faces, Baranowski reveals an unusually strong sense of identification between the painter and his subject. Graham Beal wrote about the present work: ‘The fact that this depiction of the Polish émigré Baranowski has, on occasion, been referred to as “The Poet”, when the sitter was not a poet at all, can be construed as testimony to the character of the image itself: a study in gentle and languid melancholy. The basic form of the sitter comprises an “S”, here reversed, a configuration that Modigliani had used to achieve a rather different effect in the caryatid drawings […]. In this work the supple linear quality is augmented by dappled brush strokes. Unusual for Modigliani, this more painterly treatment may, as one critic noted, well reflect a renewed interest on the artist’’’’’’’’s part in Picasso and Braque’’’’’’’’s monumental cubist figures of the period’’’’’’’’ (G. Beal in Steven Hooper (ed.), op. cit., p. 220). This mannerist style that characterised Modigliani’’’’’’’’s painting is partly derived from the artist’’’’’’’’s fascination with the Old Masters of his native Italy. As Werner Schmalenbach wrote: ‘Historical associations impose themselves: echoes not only of the fifteenth-century Mannerism of Sandro Botticelli but of the classic sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Mannerism of Pontormo, Parmigianino and perhaps also El Greco. […] Modigliani had a sound knowledge of Italian art, and we must assume that he was well aware of all this, however direct or indirect the actual influence’’’’’’’’ (W. Schmalenbach, Modigliani, Munich, 1980, p. 42). Summarising Modigliani’’’’’’’’s achievement as a portrait painter, James Thrall Soby has written: ‘In his intensity of individual characterisation, Modigliani holds a fairly solitary place in his epoch. One senses in his finest pictures a unique and forceful impact from the sitter, an atmosphere of special circumstance, not to recur. But he was far from being a simple realist. On the contrary, he solved repeatedly one of modern portraiture’’’’’’’’s most difficult problems: how to express objective truth in terms of the artist’’’’’’’’s private compulsion. The vigour of his style burns away over-localised fact. Indeed, his figures at times have the fascination of ventriloquist’’’’’’’’s dummies. They are believable and wholly in character, yet they would be limp and unimaginable without his guiding animation’’’’’’’’ (James Thrall Soby, Modigliani: Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1951, p.10). The first owner of Portrait de Baranowski was Léopold Zborowski, who became Modigliani’’’’’’’’s dealer after the end of the artist’’’’’’’’s relationship with Paul Gauillaume, and later to Guillaume himself. Zborowski, who had arrived in Paris in 1913, was introduced to Modigliani probably in 1915 by Moïse Kisling, who lived in the same building. Although he did not open a gallery until 1926, Zborowski began to deal in art from his apartment, installing Modigliani in one of the rooms and providing him with models and materials. In 1937 the present work was acquired by Sir Robert and Lady Sainsbury, the celebrated collectors of books, British and European art as well as Chinese and African sculpture. Containing notable works by artists including Degas, Picasso, Giacometti, Bacon and Moore, their collection is today housed in the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts in Norwich, designed by the architect Norman Foster. This work has been requested for the exhibition Modigliani to be held at Tate Modern, London from November 2017 to April 2018.
Amedeo Modigliani - Fillette À La Chevelure

Amedeo Modigliani - Fillette À La Chevelure

Original 1915
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Lot number: 15
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Amedeo Modigliani FILLETTE À LA CHEVELURE 1884 - 1920 Signed Modigliani (lower right) Oil on paper laid down on cradled panel 16 3/4 by 12 3/4 in. 42.5 by 32.5 cm Painted in 1915. Paul Guillaume, Paris Karl Nathan, New York Sale: Sotheby’’’’’’’’s, London, June 30, 1975, lot 43 Kurt Adler (and sold: Sotheby’’’’’’’’s, London, June 30, 1981, lot 43) Sale: Sotheby’’’’’’’’s, London, June 27, 1989, lot 34 Acquired at the above sale Exhibited Livorno, Villa Maria, Museo Progressivo d'Arte Contemporanea, Modigliani, gli anni della scultura, 1984, no. 30, illustrated in color in the catalogue Verona, Galleria dello Scudo, Modigliani dipinti e disegni, Incontri italiani 1900-1920, 1985, no. 28, illustrated in color in the catalogue Verona, Palazzo Forti, Galleria d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Modigliani a Montparnasse, 1988, illustrated in the catalogue
Amedeo Modigliani - Madame Hanka Zborowska

Amedeo Modigliani - Madame Hanka Zborowska

Original 1917
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Lot number: 11
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Lot Description Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920) Madame Hanka Zborowska signed ‘Modigliani’’’’’’’’ (upper right) oil on canvas 21 5/8 x 15 1/8 in. (55 x 38.3 cm.) Painted in 1917 Provenance Léopold Zborowski, Paris. Bernheim-Jeune, Paris (no. 22492), by whom acquired from the above on 1 February 1921. Paul Guillaume, Paris, by whom acquired from the above on 27 May 1924. Arthur Tooth & Sons Ltd., London. James Archdale, Birmingham, by whom acquired from the above in December 1937, and thence by descent to the present owners. Pre-Lot Text PROPERTY FROM THE COLLECTION OF JAMES ARCHDALE, BIRMINGHAM Literature A. Ceroni & L. Piccioni, I dipinti di Modigliani , Milan, 1970, no. 178, p. 97 (illustrated p. 96). J. Lanthemann, Modigliani: Catalogue raisonné , Barcelona, 1970, no. 393, p. 134 (illustrated p. 264; dated ‘1919’’’’’’’’ and titled ‘Jeune femme accoudée (la Zboroswka [sic])’’’’’’’’). F. Cachin & A. Ceroni, Tout l’’’’’’’’oeuvre peint de Modigliani , Paris, 1972, no. 178, p. 97 (illustrated p. 96). G.P. & F. Dauberville, Amedeo Modigliani chez Bernheim-Jeune , Paris, 2015, no. 17, p. 72 (illustrated p. 73; titled ‘Portrait de jeune fille’’’’’’’’). Exhibited Paris, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, La grande peinture contemporaine à la collection Paul Guillaume , May - June 1929, p. 188 (illustrated p. 148; titled ‘Jeune femme (Mme Z…)’’’’’’’’). London, Arthur Tooth & Sons, La flèche d’’’’’’’’or: Third Exhibition , November - December 1937, no. 3 (dated ‘1918’’’’’’’’ and titled ‘Madame Z’’’’’’’’). Birmingham, City Museum & Art Gallery, Exhibition of Modern French & English Paintings and Drawings etc.: The Property of a Private Collector , 1938, no. 10, p. 5 (dated ‘1918’’’’’’’’). Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, James Archdale Collection , January 1941; this exhibition later travelled to Toronto, Art Gallery, October - November 1941; and the Montreal Art Gallery, November - December 1941. On loan to the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, August 1940 - September 1945. Birmingham, City Museum & Art Gallery, Works of Art from Midland Houses , July - September 1953, no. 162, p. 31 (dated ‘1918’’’’’’’’). On loan to the Birmingham City Museum & Art Gallery, 1978-2016. View Lot Notes >
Amedeo Modigliani - Jeanne Hébuterne (au Foulard)

Amedeo Modigliani - Jeanne Hébuterne (au Foulard)

Original 1919
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Lot number: 12
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Amedeo Modigliani 1884 - 1920 JEANNE HÉBUTERNE (AU FOULARD) signed Modigliani (upper right) oil on canvas 92 by 54cm. 36 1/4 by 21 1/4 in. Painted in 1919. Read Condition Report Read Condition Report Register or Log-in to view condition report Or Saleroom Notice Provenance Constant Lepoutre, Paris Roger Dutilleul, Paris (acquired from the above in 1919) Galerie de France (Paul Martin), Paris (acquired from the above in 1943) Pierre Lévy, Paris (acquired by 1956) Jean Spira, Porrentruy, Switzerland (by descent from the above. Sold: Christie’’’’’’’’s, London, 23rd June 1986, lot 42) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner Exhibited Paris, Galerie de France, Modigliani peintures , 1945-46, no. 31 Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Cent tableaux de Modigliani , 1958, no. 95, illustrated in the catalogue Marseilles, Musée Cantini, Modigliani , 1958, no. 36, illustrated in the catalogue Geneva, Musée de l’’’’’’’’Athénée, De l'Impressionnisme à l'Ecole de Paris , 1960, no. 53, illustrated in the catalogue Lausanne, Palais de Beaulieu, Chefs-d'œuvre des collections suisses de Manet à Picasso , 1964, no. 294, illustrated in the catalogue Paris, Orangerie des Tuileries, Chefs-d'œuvre des collections suisses de Manet à Picasso , 1967, no. 201, illustrated in the catalogue Tokyo, Seibu Gallery & Kyoto, National Museum of Modern Art, Modigliani , 1968, no. 60, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Geneva, Musée Rath, Du Futurisme au Spatialisme , 1977-78, no. 58, illustrated in the catalogue Paris, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Amedeo Modigliani , 1981, no. 84, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Tokyo, The National Museum of Modern Art & Aichi, Prefectural Art Gallery, Modigliani , 1985, no. 125, illustrated in colour in the catalogue  Lausanne, Fondation de l'Hermitage, Les Peintres de Zborowski: Modigliani, Utrillo, Soutine et leurs amis , 1994, no. 15, illustrated in the catalogue Literature André Salmon, Modigliani, sa vie, son œuvre , Paris, 1926, illustrated pl. 36 Giovanni Scheiwiller, Amedeo Modigliani , Milan, 1927, illustrated (titled La moglie dell'artista ) Giovanni Scheiwiller, Modigliani , Milan, 1936, illustrated pl. 30 Seigo Taguchi, Modigliani , Tokyo, 1936, illustrated pl. 29 Gualtieri di San Lazzaro, Modigliani, Peintures, Paris, 1947, illustrated in colour pl. XV Gualtieri di San Lazzaro, Modigliani , Paris, 1953, illustrated pl. XV Arthur Pfannstiel, Modigliani et son œuvre. Etude critique et catalogue raisonné , Paris, 1956, no. 343, catalogued p. 167 André Salmon, La Vie passionnée de Modigliani , Paris, 1957, illustrated p. 257 Gualtieri di San Lazzaro, Modigliani: Portraits , Paris, 1957, illustrated in colour pl. 8 Jeanne Modigliani, Modigliani: Man and Myth , London, 1959, illustrated in colour pl. 14 Ambrogio Ceroni, Amedeo Modigliani, Dessins et Sculptures avec suite du catalogue illustré des peintures , Milan, 1965, no. 219, illustrated Gaston Diehl, Modigliani , Lugano & Paris, 1969, p. 87 Nello Ponente, Modigliani , Florence, 1969, no. 61 Joseph Lanthemann, Modigliani, catalogue raisonné. Sa vie, son œuvre complet, son art , Barcelona, 1970, no. 341, illustrated p. 249 Leone Piccioni & Ambrogio Ceroni, I Dipinti di Modigliani , Milan, 1970, no. 305, illustrated p. 103 Bernard Zurcher, Modigliani , Paris, 1980, no. 68, illustrated in colour Osvaldo Patani, Amedeo Modigliani. Catalogo generale, dipinti , Milan, 1991, no. 317, illustrated in colour p. 313 Amedeo Modigliani, l'œil intérieur (exhibition catalogue), Lille Métropole Musée d'Art Moderne, d'Art Contemporain et d'Art Brut, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 2016, fig. 47, illustrated in colour p. 130 We are grateful to Marc Restellini and the Institut Restellini for the additional information they have provided for this lot. This work will be included in the forthcoming Modigliani Catalogue raisonné by Marc Restellini. Jeanne Hébuterne (au foulard)  is a wonderfully elegant and poignant portrait of Modigliani’’’’’’’’s companion and muse. The highly refined aesthetic Modigliani developed in the last years of his life - with the rich palette and sublimely graceful line - is beautifully represented in this portrait. Inspired by the art of his native Italy, and influenced by the avant-garde artists he surrounded himself with in Montparnasse, Modigliani forged a uniquely evocative style which is particularly characteristic of his portraiture. The present work was executed shortly before both Modigliani’’’’’’’’s and Jeanne’’’’’’’’s premature deaths two days apart, in January 1920. Their tumultuous relationship and its tragic ending is one of the most enduring examples of cultural mythology. Jeanne (fig. 3) was born in 1898 and was just nineteen years old when she met Modigliani in the summer of 1917, while studying at the Académie Colarossi, which Modigliani had attended since his arrival in Paris in 1906 and where both attended life drawing classes. For the next three years, she would be his constant companion and source of inspiration, and the artist was to immortalise her image in a number of portraits (figs. 1 & 2). Although Jeanne was an artist herself, having committed suicide at the age of only twenty-two, she remains known primarily through Modigliani’’’’’’’’s portraits of her. By the time he started depicting Jeanne, Modigliani had developed his mature style, and the portraits of his companion painted during the last three years of his life are his most refined and accomplished works.   Kathleen Brunner wrote about the couple’’’’’’’’s relationship: ‘Jeanne Hébuterne met Modigliani in 1917, while she was a young art student at the Académie Colarossi. The following year she became his companion and the model who embodied the graceful, Italianate aesthetic of his late work. […] Hébuterne was devoted to Modigliani, as he was to her, even pledging in writing to marry her. She was introspective and compliant, although she may have had a stronger character than is commonly acknowledged […]. In their final months, in Paris, Modigliani painted some of his most poignant, Madonna-like portraits of Hébuterne, pregnant for the second time. When Modigliani died on 24 January 1920, Hébuterne was distraught and, two days later, committed suicide by leaping from an upstairs window’’’’’’’’ (K. Brunner in Modigliani and His Models (exhibition catalogue), Royal Academy of Arts, London, 2006, p. 150).   The elegant style of the present work and the mannerism that characterised Modigliani’’’’’’’’s portraiture in general are partly derived from the artist’’’’’’’’s fascination with the Old Masters of his native Italy. As Werner Schmalenbach wrote: ‘Historical associations impose themselves: echoes not only of the fifteenth-century Mannerism of Sandro Botticelli but of the classic sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Mannerism of Pontormo, Parmigianino and perhaps also El Greco. One work often mentioned in connection with Modigliani’’’’’’’’s late portraits of women is Parmigianino’’’’’’’’s Madonna dal collo lungo ; Pontormo’’’’’’’’s St. Anne Alterpiece is equally relevant. Modigliani had a sound knowledge of Italian art, and we must assume that he was well aware of all this, however direct or indirect the actual influence’’’’’’’’ (W. Schmalenbach, Modigliani , Munich, 1980, p. 42).   At the same time, Modigliani was acutely aware of the artistic developments of his own time. Although he never completely subscribed to the syntax of Cubism, he adopted some of its stylistic devices such as the geometric simplification and break-up of forms, and was close to the sculptors Ossip Zadkine and Jacques Lipchitz, both of whom were strongly influenced by Cubism. Even more important perhaps was his relationship with Brancusi, whom he met in 1909. Brancusi not only encouraged him to carve directly in stone, causing him virtually to abandon painting for several years, but also gave the most convincing demonstration of how influences from the widest possible range of sources – tribal, archaic, Asian and African – could be transformed into a personal idiom of the greatest originality (fig. 6).   Between 1909 and 1914 Modigliani devoted most of his creative effort to stone carvings and preparatory drawings, and during this time considered himself primarily a sculptor. In his sculptural opus, Modigliani never abandoned the motif of the human figure, alternating between heads (fig. 4) and caryatids. The highly stylised, elegant facial features of his stone carvings reflect an amalgamation of influences, from Khmer sculpture to ancient Egyptian and Greek art. A particularly strong source of inspiration was found in African dance masks. Modigliani arrived in Paris at the time when tribal art was being ‘discovered’’’’’’’’ by avant-garde artists and he soon became a pioneer of ‘primitivist’’’’’’’’ style alongside Picasso, Matisse and Brancusi. Modigliani applied his fascination with African masks (fig. 5) first to his stone carvings and later to his painted portraits. What he and his fellow artists – including Picasso (fig. 7) - responded to was the simplification and abstraction of the human figure, a style that helped define the development of early modernism in Europe.   Modigliani imbued his portraits of Jeanne with an emotional and psychological dimension rarely found in his other work, as described by Claude Roy: ‘In most pictures of Jeanne we find a very discreet, deliberately subdued color orchestration […] in the softness of the colors, the fragile delicacy of the tones and the exquisite discretion with which relationships between the picture elements are stated, we cannot fail to sense the expression of a love no less discreet than ecstatic. Modigliani is speaking here almost in a whisper; he murmurs his painting as a lover murmurs endearments in the ear of his beloved. And the light bathing the picture is the light of adoration’’’’’’’’ (C. Roy,  Modigliani , New York, 1958, pp. 112-113). Jeanne Hébuterne (au foulard)  displays the softness and the gently emotional tone that Roy described, accomplished through the use of subtly curved lines and a rich, warm palette.   In the catalogue of the exhibition Modigliani: The Melancholy Angel held in 2002-03 Modigliani’’’’’’’’s portraits of Jeanne are discussed in comparison to photographs of her taken by Blaise Cendrars, Jean Cocteau and Paul Guillaume: ‘Now, thanks to the photos of Jeanne, we can for the first time appreciate the full extent of Modigliani’’’’’’’’s sensitivity to the woman he loved and drew such inspiration from; how irresistibly he evoked her gauche physical presence, rather emphatic features, her magnificent head of auburn hair, often plaited, and her melancholy moue . Contemporaries such as Stanislas Fumet compared her to a swan’’’’’’’’ ( Modigliani. L’’’’’’’’ange au visage grave (exhibition catalogue), Musée du Luxembourg, Paris, 2002-03, p. 386).   This exquisite three-quarter length portrait powerfully synthesises all the characteristic traits which Modigliani developed in his post-1916 portraits: the geometric simplification of the female form, the S-shaped curve of her body inscribed by a flowing melodic line to which her whole body is subjected, the elongated neck and face, the stylised, accentuated line of her nose and the pursed, small mouth with sensuous lips. Uniquely, in Jeanne Hébuterne (au foulard) Modigliani has endowed his lover with a pair of piercingly bright eyes, with delicately indicated pupils. This departure from his more usual ‘almond’’’’’’’’ vacant eyes, which imbued his sitters with an enigmatic and impenetrable mood, gives Jeanne a powerful sense of personality. What makes the present work stand out among Modigliani’’’’’’’’s portraits is a beautifully achieved balance between his unique mannerism and stylisation and a tender insight into the personality and psychology of his muse.
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