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Hans Memling

Germany (1433 -  1494 ) Wikipedia® : Hans Memling
MEMLING Hans Portrait Of A Male Donor, Said To Be Francisco De Rojas

Jul 10, 2002
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Artworks in Arcadja

Some works of Hans Memling

Extracted between 71 works in the catalog of Arcadja
Hans Memling - The Virgin Mary Nursing The Christ Child

Hans Memling - The Virgin Mary Nursing The Christ Child



Lot number: 11
Hans Memling (Seligenstadt 1430/40-1494 Bruges) The Virgin Mary nursing the Christ Child oil and gold on oak panel, circular 6 7/8 in. (17.4 cm.) diameter
Ricardo (Richard) Traumann Collection, Madrid. Baron Laurent Meeus (1872-1950), Brussels. with Agnew\’\’\’\’s, London, from whom purchased by Captain and Mrs. Vivian Bulkeley-Johnson, Churchill, Oxon (The Mount Trust), 7 December 1950. Anonymous sale; Christie\’\’\’\’s, London, 1 December 1978, lot 111. Private collection, Antwerp, from whom purchased in 2007 by the following, Anonymous sale [Property from a Private Collection]; Christie\’\’\’\’s, New York, 25 January 2012, lot 23.
Hans Memling - The Virgin Mary Nursing The Christ Child

Hans Memling - The Virgin Mary Nursing The Christ Child



Lot number: 23
Hans Memling (Seligenstadt 1430/40-1494 Bruges)
The Virgin Mary nursing the Christ Child
oil and gold on panel, circular
6 7/8 in. (17.4 cm.) diameter
Ricardo (Richard) Traumann Collection, Madrid.
Laurent Meeus, Brussels.
with Agnew's, London, from whom purchased by
Captain and Mrs. Vivian Bulkeley-Johnson, Churchill, Oxon (The Mount Trust), 7 December 1950.
Anonymous sale; Christie's, London, 1 December 1978, lot 111.
Private collection, Antwerp, from whom purchased by the present owner, 2007.
F. Winkler, Der Meister von Flémalle und Rogier van der Weyden. Studien zu ihren Werken und zur Kunst ihrer Zeit mit mehreren Katalogen zu Rogier, Strassburg, 1913, pp. 21-22 and p. 22 under note 3.
M.J. Friedländer, Die Altniederländische Malerei, VI: Hans Memling und Gerard David, Berlin, 1928, no. 51 (formerly Traumann Collection, present whereabouts unknown).
M.J. Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, VIa, Hans Memlinc and Gerard David, trans. H. Norden from Die Altniederländische Malerei, [Berlin and Leyden, 1928], New York and Washington, 1971, no. 51, [incorrectly listed in the 1971 edition as in the Cleveland Museum of Art].
F. Grossmann, 'Flemish Paintings at Bruges', The Burlington Magazine, IC, no. 646, January 1957, p. 4.
J. Bialostocki, Les Musées de Pologne (Gdansk, Kraków, Warszawa), Les Primitifs Flamands, Brussels, 1966, p. 39, under no. 118, F; I b, no. 11.
G.T. Faggin and M. Corti, L'opera completa di Memling, Milan, 1969, p. 106, no. 72.
D. Sutton, 'The Mount Trust Collection', The Connoisseur, October 1960, p. 105, fig. 12.
D. de Vos, Hans Memling: The Complete Works, Antwerp, 1994, p. 294, no. 82.
H. Mund, C. Stroo, N. Goetghebeur, H. Nieuwdorp, The Mayer Van den Bergh Museum, Antwerp. Corpus of Fifteenth Century Painting in the Southern Netherlands and the Principality of Liege, XX, Brussels, 2003, pp. 51-53.
T.-H. Borchert, Memling, Florence, 2005, p. 19.
B. Lane, Hans Memling: Master Painter in Fifteenth-Century Bruges, London and Turnhout, 2009, p. 331, no. B12, fig. 271, as 'Hans Memling (?)'.
T.-H. Borchert, 'Review, Hans Memling: Master Painter in Fifteenth Century Bruges', The Burlington Magazine, February 2010, pp. 102-103.
Brussels, Exposition d'Art Ancien, 1941-1942, no. 23.
Bruges, Groeningemuseum, L'Art Flamand dans les collections britanniques, August-September 1956, no. 12.
Bruges, Groeningemuseum, Hans Memling: Five Centuries of Fact and Fiction, 12 August-15 November 1994, p. 136, no. 35 (catalogue by D. de Vos with contributions by D. Marachal and W. Le Loup).
Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, on loan, September 2007-August 2010.
Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Hans Memling's Virgin Nursing the Christ Child and the Early Netherlandish Tondo, 19 December 2009-17 March 2010, fig. 2 (catalogue by L. DeWitt).
With an almost immaculate surface, this exceptionally well-preserved roundel depicting a gracefully solemn Virgin Mary nursing the Christ Child set before a gilded background, has long been recognized as a work by the leading artist in Bruges during the last third of the 15th century, Hans Memling. The panel, first recorded in the collection of Ricardo (Richard) Traumann in Madrid, is one of the very few works by the master remaining in private hands.

Commonly regarded as one of the most important and influential painters of the Early Netherlandish School, Hans Memling was born between 1435 and 1440 in Seligenstadt, a German city located between Frankfurt and Aschaffenburg on the river Main. He is recorded for the first time in 1465 when he acquired his citizenship in Bruges, as this was a necessary requirement to establish and run a painter's workshop in that city. Memling's remarkable artistic skills, his pious style and quiet and somewhat idyllic compositions greatly appealed to the religious institutions, to the secular guilds and to the wealthy families of Bruges as well as to members of the affluent international merchant community who resided -- more or less temporarily -- in the city, then still the unchallenged commercial center of the Burgundian Netherlands.

It is not known precisely where or with whom Memling received his initial training, but his exceptional awareness of early 15th century Cologne painting and compositions strongly suggests that he might have been apprenticed in that city's conservative environment. After completing his apprenticeship, the young painter, as some of his compatriots did, seems to have travelled to the Low Countries as a journeyman. In the Netherlands he presumably found work in the atelier of Rogier van der Weyden in Brussels. The remarkable affinity of many of Memling's compositions with works that were produced in Rogier's workshop seems to support a later remark by Giorgio Vasari, who noted in his Vite that Memling was a pupil of Van der Weyden. Throughout his subsequent career in Bruges, Memling repeatedly returned to motifs from Rogier's repertoire in his own compositions, which strongly suggests that as a young painter he must have gained privileged access to his famous master's model and workshop drawings during his stay in Rogier's Brussels workshop.

Upon his arrival in Bruges Hans Memling carefully began to study the paintings by Jan van Eyck (c. 1395-1441) in the city, whose authoritarian compositions became an important source of inspiration for the younger artist. By emulating Van Eyck's staggering optical effects and profoundly detailed realism, Memling created a unique and highly successful combination of prevalent Eyckian traditions and the normative empathy of the pictorial language that Rogier van der Weyden (c. 1399-1464) had introduced into Early Netherlandish painting. Memling's painterly synthesis of these elements must have answered to the prevalent taste of the time, as he found many admirers among a remarkably heterogeneous clientele who commissioned altarpieces and portraits from his workshop to adorn their chapels and homes in Bruges or abroad, or who acquired devotional images for their private worship.

Memling's innovative approach to portraiture which for the first time in the history of this genre combined the likenesses of sitters with a lavishly detailed landscape background seems to have been especially appealing to Venetian, Genoese and Florentine tastes and was quickly copied by Italian painters such as Domenico Ghirlandaio, Giovanni Bellini and Pietro Perugino. Memling's patrons included many Italians, such as the prominent Florentine bankers Angelo Tani and Tommaso Portinari (both of whom were representatives of the Medici Bank in Bruges, and the famous Venetian humanist Bernardo Bembo. Yet his clients also included Hanseatic and Castilian merchants, as well as the Welsh diplomat Sir John Donne of Kidwelley -- an influential member of the English court -- who commissioned Memling's Triptych of Saint John, now in the National Gallery in London.

Memling was a remarkably prolific artist. Throughout his career -- and regardless the prominence of the commission -- he regularly varied his well-established repertoire to create new, ambitious and sometimes surprising compositions. He did so by, for example, inversing, adding or omitting figures or simply by replacing a landscape background with an interior view or neutral ground. His efficient organization of labor enabled the painter to satisfy the discriminating taste and demand of the clients without compromising quality as well as to create a variety of popular devotional images on spec. His professional success permitted Memling to expand his workshop and to train two apprentices in 1480 and 1483, respectively. By the 1480s, Memling's enterprise arguably had become the most successful workshop in Bruges, and seems to have kept this privileged position until the artist's death in 1494.

Memling's tondo with the Virgin Mary nursing the Christ Child sheds light on his devotional images. Despite its remarkable quality of execution, this circular Andachtsbild was presumably not commissioned by an individual patron; instead, such images were -- for the painter's own risk and profit -- produced for the shop's stock, and sold to interested clients who often used and displayed them in their private homes (See J. Held, 'A Tondo by Cornelisz Engelbrechtsz', Oud Holland, LXVII, 1952), p. 234). In contrast to the 16th century, when speculative production for the growing art market had become common, in Memling's time this did not necessarily result in a weakening of quality or a decline in originality.

Some years earlier, Memling had painted another version of the tondo's composition (fig. 1) that corresponds in shape and dimensions with the present panel but is entirely different in character (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). In this thinly painted roundel of circa 1475/80 the artist displayed the Virgin and Child in front of an idyllic landscape with trees and soft hills on the distant horizon (see M. Sprinson de Jesus in M.W. Ainsworth, K. Christiansen (ed.), From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 1998, no. 55). The Virgin, shown in half-length, is clad in a blue dress with a decorated seam below a red mantle as her head is covered by a light white veil that is draped around her breast; with both hands, she tightly holds the suckling Child who is gazing to the right.

In yet a third version of the composition that, given its weaker quality and coarse execution, was produced in Memling's workshop at about 1490 (The Mayer Van den Bergh Museum, Antwerp) and shares certain similarities with the tondo's of Memling's Ursula-shrine that are commonly considered to be by the workshop. In the Antwerp copy, the landscape background was replaced with speckled gilding in order to add authority to the image. The Antwerp Virgin follows Memling's version in New York -- with the notable difference of switching the colors of the Virgin's dress and mantle for purely decorative reasons -- while the Christ child, directing his eyes towards the spectator, is similar to the child's position in the present roundel.

The bright and charming roundel in the Metropolitan Museum as well as the stiff and somewhat clumsy copy in Antwerp contrast sharply with Memling's gracefully solemn interpretation of the composition in the present lot. Here, the Virgin, wearing a blue dress with a grey-blue mantle, is placed in front of a gilded background speckled with red paint. Her shiny long brown hair, partly covered by the heavily pleated white cloth on her head, falls in curls over her shoulders, leaving her left ear visible. Turning her head to the left, she looks down at the nursing Child and with her left hand she closely grasps his back. The Infant, in turn, places his tiny hands on his mother's breast and shoulder while directing his gaze to the beholder.

The underdrawing, made visible by means of infrared-reflectography, was applied with a dry drawing medium (chalk) directly on the of ground preparation of the panel. The underdrawing is spontaneous and loose in character, with minor hatches along the shaded flesh tones. Although it is highly likely that Memling had a detailed preparatory drawing of the composition at his disposal, no signs of pouncing, tracing or other means of a mechanical transfer of the composition have been found. On the contrary the underdrawing of this small panel reveals a remarkable number of minor pentimenti as the painted surface altered the position of the Virgin's fingers, the gaze of the Infant (fig. 2) and the exact placements of Mary's nose and mouth, strongly suggesting the master's hand in the final execution of the panel.

The painting's surface, too, reveals Memling's superb technical skills as they are demonstrated, for example, by the remarkable sovereignty in the subtle application of thin white glazes on top of the flesh tones that increase the plasticity of physiognomies. In its carefully modeled surface and firm application of paint, the Virgin Mary nursing the Christ Child is a striking example of Memling's mature style of circa 1485-1494. The subtle brushwork as well as the typically rounded lips, the slightly dented bridge of the nose and the semicircular eyebrows of the Virgin's face unmistakably link the small scale Tondo to Memling's masterpieces such as the Virgin and Child from the Diptych of Maarten van Nieuwenhove (1487), the Diptych of the Deposition (c. 1490, Granada, Capilla Real) and, in particular, to the stylistically similar Virgin and Child with two kneeling nuns as donors (fig. 3) from the famous Shrine of Saint Ursula (1489, both Bruges, Hospitalmuseum).

Given the quality of execution and the strong stylistic analogies with Memling's documented works, it is surprising to note that in 1928, Max J. Friedländer (loc. cit.) first classified the tondo as a possible workshop replica. The connoisseur's hesitation, no doubt, was based on the just observation that Memling's painting was not only deliberately archaic in character but also was copying an older composition by a master of a previous generation (Winkler, op. cit.; Bialostocki op. cit.; see also below for Memling's iconography and pictorial sources).

In 1969, Giorgio T. Faggin (op. cit.) reinstated the small tondo among Memling's autograph works and by doing so underlined its remarkable quality. It was also included in the scholarly 1994 catalogue raisonné by Dirk De Vos (op. cit.) who correctly observed that the painting -- despite its intentional archaic appearance -- displayed all the characteristics of Memling's style and belonged to the mature later works of the artist. In 2003 Hélene Mund also acknowledged Memling's authorship of the panel in her study on the Antwerp tondo (H. Mund et. al., loc. cit.) as did Lloyd DeWitt in his small catalogue celebrating the confrontation of the tondo with the Metropolitan Museum's version in the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 2009-2010. Barbara G. Lane's 2009 study on the artist (op. cit.) listed the painting among the disputed works by Memling: she pointed to the sharp contours that she considered to be an unusual feature of Memling's painting, failing to acknowledge the fact that in this painting the Bruges' artist was intentionally emulating a much older style.

More than other works by the artist, the tondo with the Virgin Mary nursing the Christ Child is particularly fascinating because it reveals the painter's striking ability to emulate pictorial prototypes of older masters and to incorporate them completely into his own style. It shows Memling's conscious approach towards normative compositions of the past that in this particular case he had most likely first encountered in the workshop of Rogier van der Weyden.

It has long been recognized that Memling's ultimate source for this composition may have been the famous near-life-size depiction of the Virgin and Child in front of a brocade-hanging (fig. 5) that is one of three fragments from an ambitious winged altarpiece of circa 1425-1435 in the Städelmuseum, Frankfurt, after which the Master of Flémalle has been named. Sometimes believed to be identical with Van der Weyden's teacher Robert Campin of Tournai (c. 1370/5-1444) the works attributed to this master consist of panels produced by either Robert Campin or by various members of Campin's workshop such as the young Rogier van der Weyden (for a summary on the recent controversy regarding the Master of Flémalle, see J. Sander, 'Reconstructing Artists and their Oeuvres' in The Master of Flémalle and Rogier van der Weyden, exhibition catalogue, eds. S. Kemperdick and J. Sander, Ostfildern, 2008, pp. 75-93).

The Flémalle-Virgin in Frankfurt is arguably among the oldest interpretations by an eminent painter of the Flemish Ars Nova of an ancient Byzantine icon known as the Panhagia Glaktotrophousa (or Virgo Lactans) that became a popular devotional image in the Low Countries during the late fourteenth and early sixteenth centuries. When they initially arrived in the West, Byzantine or Italo-Byzantine icons often turned into objects of devout veneration since these exotic pictures were believed to be miraculous images. In some instances they were even thought to been painted by Saint Luke -- patron saint of painters -- himself, as the subject finds its textual roots in his Gospel: 'Blessed is the womb that bore You and the breasts that nursed You' (Luke, 11:27). Such was the case of the Italo-Byzantine Icon Notre Dame de grâce that was venerated in the abbey of Saint Sepulchre (today's Cathedral) in Cambrai and was regularly quoted in Early Netherlandish representations of the Virgin. In 1454/55 the painter Hayne de Bruxelles was commissioned to produce no less than 12 copies of this holy image in oil, and the nursing Virgin on the Frankfurt panel may have been based on a similarly venerated icon. This devotional predilection explains the widespread circulation of bust-length versions of this Virgo Lactans in both rectangular and circular shape that were produced with minor variations in the Netherlands until the early sixteenth century. More than 30 versions survive that share the same composition with or without inscriptions, with left and right orientations in front of both gilded and monochrome backgrounds. All of them are approximately of the same size and were presumably based on circulating model drawings that were used to pounce or trace the composition. Taken as a whole, this evidence not only points to a popular demand of the devotional image, but also suggests that the common model itself held some significance.

It is unclear when exactly this composition and the tondo-shape became popular. Earlier scholars such as Winkler and Friedländer assumed a lost circular version of the Frankfurt Virgin by the Master of Flémalle that they believed was most closely mirrored in a painting from the Johnson Collection (fig. 4) which shows the Virgo Lactans reversed and in front of a dark reddish background. While the Johnson painting arguably is very Flémallesque, its dating is far from sure. In fact, most of the surviving Flemish roundels depicting the Virgo Lactans seem to have been produced from the last decade of the fifteenth century, and this raises the possibility that Memling may have had a vital role in re-shaping this venerated image.
Memling's exquisite painting is a particularly interesting interpretation of the ancient prototype because of its intentional archaism, evoked by the gilded background. This unusually conservative element undoubtedly underlined the authority of the venerated image. Not less significant is the fact that, in Memling's picture, the Christ Child turns his gaze towards the beholder, which in combination with the Virgin's uncovered ear, strikingly visualizes the basic idea of Mary's intercession that was theologically linked to the nursing mother and therefore to the Iconography of the Virgo lactans. In the Flémalle-Virgin from Frankfurt as well as in the earlier version in the Metropolitan Museum, the Child stares indifferently towards the mother. Remarkably, the present painting's underdrawing reveals that the Child's eyes were initially not directed towards the spectator, and that this significant motif -- prominently present in most of the extant versions -- was introduced only at the painting stage. This observation raises the provocative question: Was it Memling, rather than the 'Master of Flémalle', who introduced this intercession-motif to Netherlandish roundels with the Virgo Lactans?

Till-Holger Borchert
Hans Memling - Portrait Of A Male Donor, Said To Be Francisco De Rojas

Hans Memling - Portrait Of A Male Donor, Said To Be Francisco De Rojas

Original 1494


Lot number: 8
oil on marouflaged panel This lot
contains 1 item(s).
This painting, though known to
scholars and unanimously published as by Memling since the 1930s,
has only recently come to light since its last appearance on the
market over forty years ago. As a portrait of a donor, it would
certainly originally have formed the left hand wing of a triptych.
No other panels that can certainly be linked to this triptych
survive, but Friedländer was the first (see
1971, p. 109) to suggest that a fragmentary panel depicting
Girl Reading
36 by 28.5 cm
op. cit.
reproduced plate 232), last recorded in a private collection in
Paris, may have formed part of the pendant shutter. This
association rests most clearly on the similar columns and floor
tiles found in the background of both pictures, but in the
continued absence of the panel itself this must perforce remain
speculative. The lost central panel may have depicted a

, or more likely a

. This interpretation is again supported by the
inclusion of the figure of Joseph of Arimathea in the present
panel, who is depicted on the left of the landscape background,
standing before an empty sarcophagus and tomb of Christ.

Memling's portrayal of the donor in this painting leaves no doubt
that he was a prominent individual of considerable wealth and
standing, but his exact identity, and with it a possible dating for
this picture, has been the source of much discussion. The nobleman
kneels in prayer before a
in an open loggia,
framed by a pierced stone archway, wearing a long black velvet robe
trimmed with fur and ceremonial sword. The coat-of-arms in the
lower righthand corner are those of the De Rojas family of Castile
in Spain, and its presence indicates that the donor depicted is the
diplomat Francisco de Rojas (c. 1446 - 1523), the ambassador of
King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile to the court
of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian. De Rojas was appointed
ambassador from 1492 onwards, and was no doubt a constant visitor
to the Low Countries prior to the historic double wedding in 1496
between Philip the Fair of Burgundy and Juana, second child of
Ferdinand and Isabella, and between Philip's sister Margaret of
Austria and Juana's brother Juan, the heir to the Spanish throne.
Little is known of his early life; according to his contemporary
Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo he was \\`\\`\\`\\`
muy moderado en el vestir y
(modest in both dress and deportment) and a later writer
Pedro de Rojas (
Discursos ilustres, historicos y
, Toledo 1636, fol. 200-228) describes him as small
and thin in stature (
\\`\\`\\`\\`pequeno de cuerpo y de pocas carnes, pero
de mucho esperitu y gran corazon'
). He never married, and
apparently remained a virgin all his life. De Rojas is certainly
known to have been a patron of contemporary Netherlandish artists,
and his arms appear on one of the most important illuminated
breviaries of the Ghent-Bruges School, the sumptuous
Breviary of
Isabella of Castille
(British Museum, Ms. Add. 18851),
generally dated before 1497, together with a dedication to his
Queen, Isabella. Such an identification for the sitter would, of
course, in the absence of any earlier documented trip to the Low
Countries, suggest that the present picture is a late work by
Memling, who died in 1494. This view is supported, for example, by
Baldass (see
, 1942), and most recently by
Borchert (see
, 2002) who suggests an earlier
dating around 1480. It seems unlikely, however, that a sitter,
certainly one of such prominence, would have chosen to have
himseilf depicted in an anachronistic way.

Other scholars, however, including Friedländer and, most recently,
De Vos (see
), have plausibly suggested a much
earlier dating to the later 1460s, which would make this one of
Memling's very earliest works. Both, for example, note the strong
influence of Rogier van der Weyden throughout Memling's design. The
pattern of floor tiles shown here, for example, are the same as
those in Rogier's celebrated
now in the Musée
du Louvre in Paris (reproduced in M. Davies,
Rogier van der
, London 1972, plate 21), while the framing stone arch is
also reminiscent of works such as the
Duran Madonna
now in
Madrid (Davies,
op. cit.,
plate 71). De Vos (
, p. 78) further notes the similarities between the
landscape in the present work and those in other early works by
Memling, such as the
Jan Crabbe Triptych

1467-70 or the Brussels
Saint Sebastian
of around 1475
, pp. 90, 134, nos. 5 and 23).

In support of this early dating, it may be noted that the donor's
velvet robes, with their wide shoulders and high-necked collar, are
more closely related to the fashions of the 1460s shown, for
example, in Van der Weyden's portrait of
Philippe de Cröy
1460-1 now in Antwerp (Davies,
op. cit.
, plate 94), than in
the corresponding portraits by Memling dating from the 1480s. A
dating for the present picture in the 1490s, therefore, seems
implausible as it is most unlikely that a donor of such evident
standing should choose to be portrayed at a later date wearing a
costume that was fashionable more than twenty years earlier. A
dating in the late 1460s, however, would by no means preclude the
identification of the sitter as de Rojas. He would have been in his
1470, an age he might plausibly be taken
for in this picture. If de Rojas is indeed the man depicted, he
clearly held a position of some importance at an early date and
must have visited the Netherlands many years in advance of his
appointment as Ambassador in 1492.

Frederic W. Ziv, who died last year at the age of 96, made his
fortune as the forward-thinking mastermind behind the syndicated
television industry in America. During his lifetime he acquired for
his home in Cincinnati a highly impressive collection of Old
Master, Impressionist and Modern paintings, as well as European
furniture, Americana, silver and objets de vertu. A group of five
Old Master paintings from his collection will be offered at
Sothebys New York on the 5 June.

W. Lafora, Madrid;

With Knoedler & Co., London, by 1936;

Mrs. A. Jandorf, Amsterdam, by whose executors sold London,
Sotheby's, 29 November 1961, lot 106 (£17,000 to De Boer);

With P. de Boer, Amsterdam;

Acquired from the above by Frederic W. Ziv, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Rotterdam, Museum Boymans van Beuningen,

Jeroen Bosch, Noord-Nederlandsche


Bruges, Stedilijke Musea,
Exposition de Hans Memling
, 1939,
no. 38;

The Hague, Mauritshuis, on loan, 1949-51;

Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Dijon and Brussels, Musées des Beaux-Arts,

Le grand siècle des Ducs de Bourgogne
, 1951, no. 24;

Florence, Palazzo Strozzi, 1963, no. 53;

Bruges, Stedelijke Musea,
The Age of Van Eyck. The Mediterranean
World and Early Netherlandish Painting 1430-1530,
2002, no.

M.J. Friedländer,
Die Alt
Niederländische Malerei
, vol. XIV, Leiden 1937, p. 103;

W. Schöne, \\`\\`\\`\\`Hans Memling. Zur Austellung seines Lebenswerkes in
Brügge', in
, XII, 1939, p. 294;

L. van Baldass,
Hans Memling
, Vienna 1942, no. 94;

M.J. Friedländer, \\`\\`\\`\\`Noch etwas über das Verhältnis Roger van der
Weyden zu Memling', in
Oud Holland,
61, 1946, p. 19;

M.J. Friedländer,
Hans Memling
, Amsterdam 1949, p.

G.T. Fagin,
L'Opera completa di Hans Memling
, Milan 1969, p.
108, no. 85;

M.J. Friedländer,
Early Netherlandish Painting
, vol. VII,
Leiden and Brussels 1971, p. 109, suppl. 228, reproduced plate 228,
and vol. via, Leiden and Brussels 1971, p. 36;

G.T. Fagin,
Tout l'?uvre peint de Hans Memling
, Paris 1973,
p. 108, no. 85 (as an early work

B.G. Lane,
Hans Memling, Werkverzeichnis. Die grossen Meister
der Malerei
, Frankfurt-Berlin-Vienna 1980, no. 84a;

H.J. van Miegroet,
Gerard David
, Antwerp 1989, pp.

D. de Vos,
Hans Memling: The Complete Works
, Antwerp 1994,
pp. 78-79, no. 2;

M. Faries, \\`\\`\\`\\`The Underdrawing of Memling's
Last Judgement
', in
Memling Studies


T.-H. Borchert, in
The Age of Van Eyck. The Mediterranean World
and Early Netherlandish Painting 1430-1530
, exhibition
catalogue, Bruges, Stedelijke Musea, 2002, p. 242, no. 47,
reproduced p. 200, fig. 220.
Hans Memling - Segnender Christus

Hans Memling - Segnender Christus



Gross Price
Lot number: 304
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