Edward Hicks

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HICKS Edward The Peaceable Kingdom With The Leopard Of Serenity

Sotheby's /May 22, 2008
Not disclosed
6,140,417.70

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Artworks in Arcadja
24

Some works of Edward Hicks

Extracted between 24 works in the catalog of Arcadja
Edward Hicks -  Penn's Treaty

Edward Hicks - Penn's Treaty

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Lot number: 105
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Lot Description Edward Hicks (1780-1849) Penn's Treaty oil on canvas 17¾ x 23¾ in. Lot Condition Report I confirm that I have read this Important Notice and agree to its terms. View Condition Report Provenance By descent in the artist's family Robert W. Carle, South Salem, Connecticut (Edward Hicks's great-grandson) Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut A Private Collector Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York Pre-Lot Text Property of a Distinguished American Collection Literature Paul A. W. Wallace, Seeds of a Nation, (New York, 1962) (illustrated on the cover) Leon Anthony Arkus, "Edward Hicks 1780-1849", Three Self-Taught Pennsylvania Artists: Hicks, Kane, Pippin (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1966), p. 16 Hirschl & Adler Galleries, American Folk Art, (New York, 1977), no. 31, p. 27 Eleanor Price Mather and Dorothy Canning Miller, Edward Hicks: His Peacable Kingdoms and Other Paintings, (New York, 1983), no. 86, p. 175 Alice Ford, Edward Hicks: His Life and Art, (New York, 1985), p. 118 (referenced) Exhibited New York, United States Section of the International Commission on Folk Art, Exhibition of Folk Art, 1935. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Three Self-Taught Pennsylvania Artists: Hicks, Kane, Pippin, 1966. New York, Hirschl & Adler Galleries, American Folk Art, 26 November -29 December 1977. View Lot Notes ›
Edward Hicks - Peaceable Kingdom Of The Banner

Edward Hicks - Peaceable Kingdom Of The Banner

Original 1830
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Lot number: 21
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Measurements 17 1/2 in. by 23 1/4 in. alternate measurements 44.5 cm by 59.1 cm DESCRIPTION painted 1829-1830 The painting is in its original cherry-veneered frame withcorner blocks, handlettered by the artist. oil on canvas PROVENANCE The artist, to his daughter Sarah B. Hicks Perry, to herdaughter Tacie Perry Willets, to her daughter Mabel WilletsAbendroth, to her daughter Cordelia Abendroth Flanagan Kennedy Galleries, Inc., New York EXHIBITED Kennedy Galleries, Inc., New York, American Naive and Folk Artof the Nineteenth Century, January 16 - February 28, 1974; colorcover, The Kennedy Quarterly, Volume XIII, Number One, January1974 LITERATURE AND REFERENCES Frederic Newlin Price, Edward Hicks, 1780-1849, a pampletpublished by the Benjamin West Society, Swarthmore College,Pennsylvania, 1945, page 27, Number 64 CATALOGUE NOTE "Peaceable Kingdoms with Quakers Bearing Banners of thiskind may have been influenced by the historic separation betweenFriends. At least five examples are known which appear to have beenpainted between 1827 and 1835; one of the group is dated 1832. Theyrepresent the earliest departure that Hicks made from the engravingon which he depended. A leopard couchant with a long snake-liketail, which becomes a trademark in later Kingdoms , makes itsfirst appearance in this series. The cockatrice's den, brooding andmysterious below the gathered creatures in paintings from Hick'slater periods, is barely suggested here. Despite the perspectiveused in portraying the band of Quakers on the left, these earlypaintings are enclosed and two-dimensional in appearance. The symbolism of the Quakers bearing a streamer from Calvary, orfrom Pendle Hill, is suggested in a passage from a long poemwritten by Hicks himself: Sweet peace, the Saviour's legacy of loveDescended on them from the Heaven above.Then mercy smiled and justice sat surrene,While Heavenly glory filled the space between.High on the mount, conspicuous to the sight,Friends stood alone, environed round the light.Then let them stand there, let the people knowThey cannot mingle with the world below." (Excerpted from Edward Hicks/1780-1849/A Special ExhibitionDevoted to His Life and Work, introduction and chronology byAlice Ford, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection,Williamsburg, Virginia, September 30 – October 30, 1960, page12) "Here Penn's Treaty is replaced by a pyramid of plain-coatedFriends, and around them twines a banner inscribed, 'Behold I bringglad tidings of great joy. Peace on earth and good will to men.'Far above them on the hilltop shine thirteen rays of light." "But it was Mary C. Black who first perceived a connectionbetween these six Kingdoms and the Separation which dividedOrthodox and Hicksite Friends in 1827, a discovery confirmed byFrederick Tolles when he identified the figure of Elias Hicks inthe front row of each of the six canvases: the pose was clearlyrecognizable from a silhouette circulated in 1830, the year of theQuaker leader's death. Tolles also detected, at the apex of thepyramid, the three pathfinders of early Quakerism: Fox preaching,Penn with arms characteristically outstretched, and Barclay theapologist with book in hand – a trio to which the artist oftenrefers in his Memoirs ." "This interpretation is certainly consistent with the officialHicksite position, which attributed the source of the conflict tothe inquisitional methods of orthodoxy rather than to doctrinalattitudes: 'Whatever the peculiar view of the Orthodox brethren maybe on particular doctrinal subjects, no exception has been takenagainst them on this account. The point at issue was the assumptionand exercise of undue power.' Or, to quote the artist's owntypically anti-British statement, 'neither Elias Hicks nor hisdoctrine had anything to do with our Quaker revolution inPennsylvania, which originated in a contest between therepublicanism of William Penn, planted in America and watered andcherished by free institutions of our country, and the aristocracyof the Yearly Meeting of London, under the influence of the Britishhierarchy. We can well believe that the painter's conscious intent incomposing Kingdoms with Quakers Bearing Banners was to portray theprogress of religious liberty. But, as a practical matter of fact,the issues of religious freedom and doctrine were inseparable. Andit proved as impossible to keep Elias Hicks out of the paintings asout of the controversy itself. Not only does the venerable Quakerappear in the front row of all these canvases, but in two cases hisdoctrine is spelled out verbally. 'Mind the light within', readsthe banner." (Excerpted from Eleanore Price Mather, "A Quaker Icon: The InnerKingdom of Edward Hicks," The Art Quarterly , Volume XXXVI,Numbers 1/2, Spring/Summer 1973, pages 88 & 89)
Edward Hicks - Peaceable Kingdom

Edward Hicks - Peaceable Kingdom

Original
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Lot number: 11
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As noted by Dorothy Canning Miller, Eleanor Price Mather andCarolyn J. Weekley, the painting retains its original black paintedframe with interior gilded edge. Pre-Lot Text Property from the Collection of J. Irwin and Xenia S. Miller Provenance Emmor Kimber Janney (1840-1916), Philadelphia, son Literature Alice Ford, Edward Hicks: His Life and Art (New York, 1985), p.128. Exhibited Williamsburg, Virginia, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk ArtCollection, Edward Hicks: 1780-1849: A Special Exhibition Devotedto His Life and Work, 1960. Lot Notes When the Quaker artist and minister Edward Hicks painted hisfirst Peaceable Kingdom painting, just before 1820, it is unlikelythat the artist could have foreseen the central role the resultingseries of images - his iconographic arrangements of animals andhuman figures based on the Isaiah prophecy - would play in his ownlife, the lives of his family and friends, and his legacy asAmerica's most celebrated folk artist. Through his early apprenticeship training and practice as a coachsign and decorative painter, Edward Hicks had acquired significantnotoriety as a craftsman of renowned skill and talent. Followingcriticism for his overly decorative and ornamental style by theQuaker Society of Friends, in 1816 Hicks turned for a time tofarming, and his coach painting and other artisan work were setaside for favor of this pursuit. It proved for the painter anoccupation that would meet with limited success, in fact his"farming speculation" showed a significant loss after wages anddebts were paid. Consequently, the Hicks' shop ledger makes nomention of any painterly work again until 1817. Hicks' return to ornamental painting was heralded by anadvertisement he posted in the Star of Freedom for "Coach, Sign andOrnamental painting of all descriptions, in the neatest andhandsomest manner." Hick's friend John Comly, a prominent member ofthe Society of Friends and a revered scholar, was horrified by thenotice and was determined to make his protestations against "suchpandering to vanity, when (according to the Quaker tenets ofplainness and simplicity) he should be preaching against it" Comlycouldn't deny his friend's " native genius and taste for imitationwhich, if the divine law had not prohibited, might have rivaledPeale or West," but he was determined that the talented ministerwould not lay down "the cause of truth." Hicks would bring up the conflict repeatedly in his Memoirs.Continuing what Comly referred to as Hicks' fall into "...the mireof paint..," Hicks blamed his "harsh" and dire financialcircumstances for having to pursue the work he had undertaken. Hedecorated clock faces and floor cloths, chairs, tables and theoccasional sled and dog cart. This new, successful escape from hisbleak financial circumstances took Hicks into an even greater realmof pictorial decoration. Fireboards were decorated with landscapesto order, and Hicks expanded his imagery by copying and collectingprint source material. It was a time of renewed vigor for both hisshop's trade and his ministry, delivering rousing sermons againstthe extravagance and usury typical of the European orthodox "lions"and "leopards" within of the Society of Friends. It is during this period in the artist's life the Peaceable Kingdompaintings evolve. The schism forming within the Society of Friends,and a growing facility and success in his painting produced inHicks an overwhelming desire to paint a sermon that would unite theQuaker factions through a message of peace and love. It was a taskthat would have been for the conflicted artist a significanteffort, an effort he often described with reluctance - his love ofpainting something he considered a character flaw throughout hislife. The result of this struggle between the artist's inherentlove and talent for painterly work and his deeply felt religiousbeliefs is, in one form, what we have come to know today as EdwardHicks' rich body of easel work. It is a body of work which includesa range of varied and complex landscapes, suffused with descriptiveand metaphorical imagery - a life's work that began with thePeaceable Kingdom. The source image for Hicks' long sequence of Kingdom paintings wasan engraving of a drawing by Robert Westall. Various Englishengravers copied the work for publications of the Book of CommonPrayer and the Bible, the image appearing above these lines fromthe book of Isaiah: "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall liedown with the kid and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatlingtogether, and a little child shall lead them." Isaiah 11:6 It is widely accepted the early Kingdom paintings are evidence ofthe artist teaching himself how to paint in his own imitation ofacademic style. His training as a sign painter would aid in theaspects of composition and form, and his familiarity with composingimages from various elements taken from life and available printsources would give his compositions flexibility and an interiorlife. The composition of the series' supporting landscapes wassimilarly changeable, Hicks drawing imagery from Asher Durand'sDelaware Water Gap and the Natural Bridge depicted in Henry S.Tanner's Cartouche from "A Map of North America" for example. Heused his landscapes as both a means for presentation and messagefor each tableau, an ever shifting visual character and messagethat he described without pretense toward portraiture. In 1827, the "Schism" or split within the Quaker Society of Friendshad reached an impasse and Hicks' remarks at the BuckinghamQuarterly meeting in February of that year likened the visitingEnglish orthodox members "to destroying angels bent on denyingAmericans religious freedom so dearly won in the revolution." Thisdivide within his beloved community would continue to plague Hicks'search for inner peace, a quest that he gave full reign to play outwithin the picture plane of his Kingdom paintings. Hicks remained restless in many respects throughout his life, notthe least of which was his ongoing search for new images and sourcematerial for his continuously evolving Kingdom pictures. Hecontinued to assemble and restate his message in his unmistakablemanner and style until the end of his life in August of 1849. Many of the Kingdom pictures Edward painted were given as gifts to,if not expressly painted for, friends, neighbors and relatives.Close examination of many of these paintings that remain attachedto their original stretcher supports, or those that are on panel,bear painted inscriptions lettered lovingly in the artist's hand.Similarly, a few Kingdom paintings were gifts of an intenselypersonal nature - rare testaments of affection and sentiment ofwhich this Kingdom is one. The painting's first owner, Thomas Janney, was fourteen years oldwhen Mrs. David Twinning - wife of the then librarian of theLibrary Company of Newtown - called on his mother and "took pity onthe little "Ned" Hicks." The young boy's ancestor, also ThomasJanney, would be remembered by having his name painted on a scrollin one of Hicks' Penn's Treaty landscapes for having been a favoredcouncilor of William Penn. Thomas left the painting to his sonEmmor Kimber Janney who was named for the man that later encourageda troubled Edward to continue to pursue his ministry. This Peaceable Kingdom stands as a transitional work at the leadingedge of Hicks' late Kingdom imagery. The late Kingdom paintings asa group are characterized by ever-shifting compositions possessedof great strength and are evidence of a perfect hybrid of Hicks'sign painting skills and his achievements as an easel painter. Nowcomfortable in his painting style and the methods he used tocompose each image, Hicks may have been trying again to achieveanother format that would extend the linguistic of his painting.Whether he felt he had succeeded is unclear. The seated lion of the earlier Kingdom paintings now rises to hisfeet with a renewed ferocity. Scholars have associated thisfigure's new stance with the possible introduction of a differentprint source as a starting point - possibly the Frontispiece ofWood's New York Preceptor a standing and alert lion that was firstpublished in 1823. Hicks adroitly addresses problems of spatial arrangement,perspective and crowding of the various players by returning to theflat-work planarity of his sign painting days. The landscape of thescene tilts toward the viewer presenting the cast of characters ina visually accessible plane. The supine leopard has resigned itslong-standing foreground position and retreats to the background inthe shade of the enclosing foliage. It is a transitional Kingdomcomposition whose staging seems to be taking some outsidedirection, redefining the composition while sorting out individualroles and relationships. In an unusual gesture unique to this painting, the lion and the oxexchange particularly hardened gazes - a knowledgeable glare offerocious understanding that exists as a focus of tension betweenthese two principal players amidst the dynamic disorder of thereorganizing scene. It is an altercation that harkens back to theoverall tension that pervaded the middle Kingdom imagery thatcorresponded to the height of the Quaker schism. We know fromHicks' writings that he evolved the figure of the lion, as early asthe banner kingdom imagery, as an iconic representation of his"deep and enduring" distrust of the English orthodox Quakers. Here,we see that distrust vignetted in the Kingdom landscape, playingout in the lion's aggressive gaze directed toward the peace lovingbeast of burden. As a commentary that stands between the vigorous tensions of themiddle Kingdom paintings and the late Kingdoms visions of peace andultimately - resignation, this Peaceable Kingdom is both emblematicof the artist at work - as a painter and a craftsman - and theQuaker minister whose vivid and direct approach to the nature ofgood and evil would result, some short months later in his famousGoose Creek Sermon delivered in Loudon, Virginia. It was acharismatic speech that offered a primer to the allegorical imagesand references that defined the meaning of the Peaceable Kingdom. Asermon that was remembered for being as haunting and memorable asit was unsparing; it stands today as heartfelt testimony from thedevout artist and minister, not unlike the paintingsthemselves. Scott Webster Nolley Chief Conservator Fine Art Conservation of Virginia Note: Information in this entry was taken from Carolyn J. Weekley,The Kingdoms of Edward Hicks (Williamsburg, VA: The ColonialWilliamsburg Foundation, in association with Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,1999).
Edward Hicks - The Peaceable Kingdom With The Leopard Of Serenity

Edward Hicks - The Peaceable Kingdom With The Leopard Of Serenity

Original 1848
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Gross Price
Lot number: 60
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MEASUREMENTS measurements 26 by 29 1/2 in. alternate measurements (66 by 75 cm) DESCRIPTION oil on canvas PROVENANCE Amos Willets (acquired directly from the artist) Robert R. Willets (his nephew; grandson-in-law of the artist) Mabel Willets Abendroth, Harrison, New York William P. Abendroth, Jr., Berwyn, Pennsylvania Kennedy Galleries, New York Acquired by the present owner from the above, 1976 EXHIBITED New York, Museum of Modern Art, Masters of Popular Painting ,1938 Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Art Museum, In Celebration: Works of Art from the Collections of Princeton Alumni and Friends of Art Museum , 1997 New York, American Folk Art Museum, Millennial Dreams: Vision and Prophecy in American Folk Art , 1999-2000 LITERATURE AND REFERENCES Robert Bishop , Folk Painters of America , New York, 1979, illustrated pl. 32 Robert Bishop and Jacqueline Marx Atkins, Folk Art in American Life , New York, 1995, p. 40 Robert Bishop and Patricia Coblentz, American Decorative Arts: 360 Years of Creative Design , New York, 1982, p. 216. Kurt C. Dewhurst, Betty MacDowell, and Marsha MacDowell, Religious Folk Art in America: Reflections of Faith , New York, 1983, illustrated in color on the cover Eleanor Price Mather and Dorothy Canning Miller, Edward Hicks: His Peaceable Kingdoms Other Paintings , Newark, New Jersey, 1983, p. 147 Lee Kogan and Barbara Cate, Treasures of Folk Art: Museum of American Folk Art , New York, 1994, p. 101 Carolyn J. Weekley, The Kingdoms of Edward Hicks , New York, 1999, pp. 147, 148, illustration in color of a detail Gerard C. Wertkin, "Millennial Dreams: Vision and Prophecy in American Folk Art," Folk Art 24 , no. 3, Fall, 1999, p. 45 Stacy C. Hollander, American Radiance: The Ralph Esmerian Gift to the American Folk Art Museum , New York, 2001, pp. 412-413, illustrated in color pl. 54 CATALOGUE NOTE Painted circa 1846-48. Essay No. 1: Mather and Miller stated that wealthy New York Hicksite Quaker merchant Amos Willets commissioned this painting. He was related to the Hicks family through marriage. Correspondence with Mabel Willets Abendroth, Harrison, N.Y., in the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center archives also indicated that Amos Willets was the first owner. Documentation for "commissioning" the work from the artist is unknown, however. It is more likely that the painting was a gift for which Willets may voluntarily have sent money to Hicks. This Kingdom was subsequently given to Amos's nephew Robert R. Willets, who married Edward Hicks's granddaughter Tacie Parry, daughter of Isaac C. and Sarah Hicks Parry. Robert and Tacie's daughter Mabel Willets Abendroth inherited the painting and gave it to her son William P. Abendroth Jr., Berwyn, Pennsylvania. Later sold to Kennedy Galleries, New York, N.Y., it was acquired by a private collector. Mabel Willets Abendroth described the painting: "One of the Peaceable Kingdoms is quite large and to my way of thinking, it is the most beautiful thing of Grandfather's I have ever seen.... It was given to my father and mother about the time they were married in 1869, by the children of great Uncle Amos Willets (maybe Great-Uncle promised it to my mother before he died)." This painting is among Hicks's finest late Kingdom pictures. The artist arranged the animals, dispersed and spread over more than half of the canvas, in new and interesting ways. Many stand alone or are positioned apart from one another, an approach that is distinctively different from Hicks's Kingdoms of the 1830s and early 1840s. The artist used squarer canvases to provide the additional space he needed for the new organization. Edward did not often repeat this format in the late Kingdoms. His separation of the animals may have symbolized the further divided Orthodox and Hicksite groups which Hicks believed would be difficult to reunite into one cohesive Society of Friends Excerpted from American Radiance, The Ralph Esmerian Gift to the American Folk Art Museum , by Carolyn J. Weekley, pp. 412-413. Essay No. 2: Edward Hicks (1780-1849) is the most celebrated and beloved folk art painter in America, primarily for his many versions of The Peaceable Kingdoms, unquestionably the most appealing subject in American folk art. Born in Attleborough, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, on April 4, 1780, the son of Isaac and Catherine Hicks, he was originally trained as a carriage and fancy sign painter, and turned to easel painting almost as an avocation at about the same time he adopted the staunch Quaker belief of his foster parents (David and Elizabeth Twining). Hicks regarded himself as a primitive Quaker, and thus, to be consistent, a craftsman rather than an artist. He wrote in his memoirs, "There is something of importance in the example of the primitive Christians and primitive Quakers, to mind their callings or business avoiding idleness and fanaticism. Had I my time to do over again I think I would take the advice given me by my old friend Abraham Chapman, a shrewd, sensible lawyer that lived with me about the time I was quitting painting (to begin farming). 'Edward, thee has now the source of independence within thyself, in thy particular talent for painting. Keep to it, within the bounds of innocence and usefulness, and thee can always be comfortable.'" It seems ironic that the man who called himself in 1846 "but a poor old worthless insignificant painter" was destined in the twentieth century to be recognized as the most celebrated of America's painters. During the early 1830s, Hicks developed a format for his Peaceable Kingdoms, based on the prophecy of Isaiah 11:6-9: "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the suckling child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice's den." Never was painting more religious or more naïve, or more truly in the spirit of those Quakers who call themselves "a primitive people." The concept and design of these Peaceable Kingdoms are thoroughly Hicks', and each of his versions differ one from the other—each used elements that symbolized salvation through the "Light Within," and each was based on Isaiah's foretelling of the peaceful existence between wild and domesticated beasts led to a harmonious state by a little child. In the background of many of Hicks' Peaceable Kingdoms is a small vignette of William Penn's treaty with the Indians as another theme, adopted by the artist from a print after Benjamin West's version. The event was significant for Pennsylvania Quakers—particularly those living in Bucks County, Hicks' home area, which Penn had named for his native Buckinghamshire, England. When Harriet Martineau traveled in antebellum America, she reported that Americans looked to the "possession of land as the cure for all social evils." What allowed them to be so hopeful was an implicit belief (or a need to believe) that social conflict was something ephemeral and something easily corrected by means of reform. As in so many other crusades for reform in the early United States, the Society of Friends was at the root of the movement articulating and promoting the doctrine of pacifism. The Quakers saw little glory or value in war despite their involvement in the American Revolution. Their campaigns for reform took their inspiration not only from their rhapsodic vision of Isaiah's "peaceable kingdom" but also from the ancient dream of the prophet Micah—that men would beat their swords into ploughshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Jacksonian Americans could rejoice in the primacy of harmony, for harmony was indeed a given in the narrative of progress, a narrative in the paintings of Hicks and in the writings of Cooper that admitted no warring polarity, only orderly succession. In due time, Hicks paraphrased Isaiah's prophecy in verse form of rhyming couplets to express his allegorical vision of progress and harmony, which he had printed on cards for recipients of his Peaceable Kingdoms: Edward Hicks died on August 23, 1849, a good Quaker. Friends accepted as a fact that they were a people among peoples—an organized segment of the population which kept morality and good order in its own ranks, expected no special favor from the government, and thought other elements should do likewise. By benevolent activities they found a way to win a place for themselves in American society without either sacrificing their strict fidelity to their distinctive code of behavior or compromising with worldliness. By declining to seek converts through their philanthropic efforts, they made it possible to avoid any temptation to lower their standards in order to draw in more outsiders. Quaker asceticism and desires to reform human institutions were reconciled in Jacksonian America under the aegis of a government that expected active participation by the citizens in the political process. Men like the Quaker painter-preacher Edward Hicks purified their own conduct, maintaining the solidarity of their church, and by offering allegories of "Peaceable Kingdoms" here on earth of a "harmony of interests," which they believed it their special duty to do, showed the way in virtue and public policy to fellow Americans. We are grateful to Wendell D. Garrett, Editor-in-Chief Emeritus, Editor-at-Large, The Magazine Antiques for his assistance in cataloguing this lot. Essay Number 3: Mabel Willets Abendroth, who inherited the picture in the last century, wrote that ". . . the Peaceable kingdoms is quite large and to my way of thinking, it is the most beautiful thing of Grandfather's I have ever seen . . . . It was given to my father and mother about the time they were married in l869 . . . " (Archives, The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation). The original owner of the picture, the New York Hickite Quaker merchant Amos Willets, would likely have agreed as well as understood the iconography and underlying meanings of the picture. Those who knew the artist recognized these paintings as outward expressions of the Edward's inward feelings and personal feelings. Most would have been familiar with the lessons to be learned from Isaiah's prophecy since they were of utmost importance to Quaker quietism and the denial of the willful self. The Kingdom pictures were reminders of a critical Quaker requirement: the need to purge undesirable creaturely concerns from one's life so that it would be filled and guided by the divine grace of God. Such core issues became increasingly important to Edward in his role as a minister at a time when the schism between so-called Hickite and Orthodox Quakers raged and resulted in a division that lasted well beyond the artist's lifetime. It was the schism and ultimately the continuing separation that fueled Edward's creation and development of these paintings until the very eve of his death in l849. Although it is difficult to precisely date Edward Hick's late Kingdom pictures, the style and composition of this example place it with a handful of others created near the end of the artist's life. It was apparent to him and to other Quakers that reconciliation was years away. In the l840s, Edward began to paint Kingdom pictures that reflected his disappointment and ultimately his resignation from the division of Friends. Most of the animals in the earlier Kingdoms are seen here, although they are intentionally changed in design and placement. Edward began to use squarer formats by adding height to the compositions. In earlier versions the animals were closely grouped, but after about l845 the animals were dispersed and are loosely placed throughout the pictures. Such an arrangement is seen here as well as the obvious changes in the carnivorous animals' expressions. The languid demeanor of the lion and leopard are the most notable and also reflect a more resigned, less contentious co-existence among the beasts. The sleek, sensuous leopard still enchants us, though he is quieter in mood than before. There are more sheep, lambs, and children in these pictures, reflecting Edward continuing effort to illustrate Isaiah's prophecy through additional details. Only a very few of the late pictures, like this one, show the children actually "playing" or handling the serpents. On rare occasions the artist introduced new elements, usually at the time he developed a new composition. The grey bear at the upper right, and the figure he named "Liberty, Meekness, and Innocence" near the top at center, were used in a few of the late compositions. The colors in this Kingdom are particularly rich with four different and overlapping ground layers of tans and greens that recede into the background The animals, partly because they are loosely placed, often have full bodies that are smoothly and meticulously painted with the neat detailing associated with Hicks best pictures. The blasted and cleft tree at center, the Penn's Treaty scene taking place at upper left, and the distant river view with hills beyond are features familiar to Edward's earlier versions. A second cleft tree is seen at upper right, a significant addition since it probably symbolizes the further scattering and divisions among the two primary Quaker groups into other parties such as the Foxites and the Gurneyites. We are grateful to Carolyn J. Weekley, the Juli Grainger Director of Museums for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, for her assistance in cataloguing this lot.
Edward Hicks - Jonathan And David At The Stone Ezel

Edward Hicks - Jonathan And David At The Stone Ezel

Original
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Lot number: 313
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measurements 27 by 35 in. alternate measurements 68.6 by 88.9 cm DESCRIPTION inscribed lower right; the red painted original stretcher, inscribed in Hicks' hand: Painted By Edward Hicks in His 67th y·r. oil on canvas PROVENANCEChristie's, The John Gordon Collection, sale 9052, lot 277 Sotheby's, New York, The Estate of Leonardo L. Beans, November 21, 1980, sale 4479, lot 33 LITERATURE AND REFERENCES L.L. Beans, The Life and Works of Edward Hicks (Trenton, 1951), p. 21 Mather and Miller, Edward Hicks: His Peaceable Kingdoms and Other Paintings (East Brunswick, N.J., 1983), p. 207, no. 118. Alice Ford, Edward Hicks: His Life and Art (New York, 1985), pp. 210-213. CATALOGUE NOTE Beside the Ezel, David and Jonathan embrace, as in the first Book of Samuel, chapter 20, and Jonathan bids David, his beloved friend, "Go in peace." King Saul, father of Jonathan, had sworn to kill David. The two friends had therefore made a covenant that if an arrow from the quiver of the youth who is seen disappearing toward the city should fall nearer the Ezel stone than near David, he must flee. "The Lord be between me and thee, and between my seed and they seed forever," Jonathan intones. Might they not, in their regalia, almost join the Indians of one of the Penn's Treaty oils as Hicks conceived it? In any case, the painting is a votive of brotherly love meant to unite sharply divided Friends. Like the Peaceable Kingdom that not so long ago turned up in Vineland, New Jersey, it is inscribed, "...painted by Edw. Hiscks in the 67th year." From somewhere in Bucks County the painting traveled to the shop of a dealer, where it remained until 1980. What has remained unknown until now is that this vision of peace was actually derived, in part, from an engraving in the Hicks family Bible that is signed by both Isaac and Edward Hicks. The detail of the Good Samaritan (Luke, x, 1:37)--engraved by C. Tiebout from an etching by James Akin after an oil by William Hogarth--was the source. Akin was better known for his satirical subjects. Isaac Hicks bought the Bible--published in Philadelphia in 1801--on February 23, 1802, and entered the date. The Bible remained in the Hicks family until the 1970s, when the rare pencil sketch of a log cabin in a clearing was found folded inside it. Hicks had eased the print out, pressed it into service, then returned it to its place. Whether Hicks had drawn a circle around himself or become, for the time being, a pariah, his isolation served posterity in 1846. But he was not ready to be shelved, even if his business suffered. He broke out of his aloofness to drive to Warminster Meeting, by way of Whitemarsh, to see Sarah's sister Susan Worstall Phipps. The call was one of the "most heavenly occasions." Excerpted from, Alice Ford, Edward Hicks: His Life and Art, Abbeville Press, New York, 1985, p.210.
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