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Ludwig Deutsch

(1855 -  1935 )
DEUTSCH Ludwig Morning Prayers

Sotheby's
Apr 19, 2016
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Artworks in Arcadja
103

Some works of Ludwig Deutsch

Extracted between 103 works in the catalog of Arcadja
Ludwig Deutsch - The Moorish Guard

Ludwig Deutsch - The Moorish Guard

Original
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Lot number: 22
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Description:
Ludwig Deutsch THE MOORISH GUARD 1855 - 1935 oil on panel ; signed lower left L. Deutsch 30 x 19 cm ; 11 3/4 x 7 1/2 in. Provenance Fine Art Galleries, London ; Sale, London, November 3rd 1977, lot 116 ; Probably, purchased at the above by Pierre Bergé and Yves Saint Laurent Literature Martina Hajaand Günther Wimmer, Les Orientalistes des écoles allemandes et autrichiennes, 2000, p. 216, illustrated (for an illustration of the achieved version) Catalogue Note Preparatory sketch for the painting executed in 1892 and sold in New York, November 1st 1999 for $ 3 192 500.
Ludwig Deutsch -  At Prayer

Ludwig Deutsch - At Prayer

Original
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Lot number: 13
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Description:
Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935) At Prayer signed and dated 'L. Deutsch 1923' (lower left) oil on panel 22 x 17 3/8 in. (55.9 x 44.1 cm.) Ludwig Deutsch, arguably the most important Austrian Orientalist, was born in Vienna, and attended the city's renowned Academy of Fine Arts before settling in Paris. Largely influenced by Jean-Léon Gérôme's academic style, he began travelling to the Middle East, particularly to Egypt, by the 1880s. Although little is known about Deutsch's visits to Egypt, it appears that from 1883 until 1904 he travelled there as many as five times. Deutsch's home outside Paris was also decorated in the fashionable Orientalist style and housed a large collection of objects he brought back from his travels to the Middle East. Many of these props, such as daggers, arm shields, kursi and hookahs appear frequently in his pictures, adding colour and texture to the overall composition while demonstrating the riches of the Eastern lands (fig. 1). At Prayer is a remarkable example of the artist's mature style and his striking use of colour. The subject of mosque interiors and men at prayer were of frequent interest to Orientalist painters mainly for practical and occasionally philosophical reasons. The fundamental practical reason was that some of the most extraordinary architectural edifices in the East were non-secular buildings such as the Ummayad Mosque in Damascus, the Great Mosque in Cordoba, Hagia Sofia in Constantinople, the Caïd Bey Mosque in Cairo and the Green Mosque in Bursa. Such structures were scattered throughout the Middle East and were some of the most imposing works of art on display. The message conveyed by mosque architecture is one of power. "In the Ottoman Empire, secular power and religious authority were personified in the Sultan himself, whose rule had been granted by God. The great imperial mosques therefore were an expression of the sultan's grandeur: indeed, mosques are known by the names of their benefactors more often than not and unlike Christian churches, they are never given names associated with God or with religious personages" (D. Kuban and A. Ertug, Sinan: an Architectural Genius, Bern, 1999, p. 20). This point also ties into the philosophical attraction to the subject matter. Both ritualistically and theoretically, prayer practice in Islam is different to Christianity. In Islam, Allah is devoid of any human characteristics and therefore is everywhere without any limitations of time or space. "Since the mosque is not a house of God, it is not consecrated in the sense that a pagan temple or Christian church is. In Islam, prayer is a common and simple duty incumbent upon a believer. It can be performed anywhere. Islam a priori rejects the notion that any artefact - any man made thing - can have any religious significance and this principle holds true for mosques...A mosque indicates a place of gathering but it is a communal gathering and not a transcendental one" (Kuban and Ertug, loc. cit., p. 20). Most artists visiting the Middle East were drawn to these impressive structures but only those who fully embraced these foreign lands and their different cultures became interested in the underlying cultural and religious differences. More often than not Orientalist painters, such as Jean-Léon Gérôme, depicted the act of prayer in mosque interiors with some Christian predisposition. As artists were often not allowed to paint in harems or mosques their imagery of people in such locations is often based on Edward Lane's book entitled An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians. Such a source of imagery made it easier for artists to paint what they had not researched, observed or understood. Deutsch in At Prayer challenges himself to step beyond physical descriptions of worlds foreign to him and exhibits a deeper understanding of the Middle East. The meditative mood of the individual depicted in At Prayer communicates a finer spiritual commitment rather than a mere rhythmic following of dogmatic rituals. By the time the present work was executed in 1923, Ludwig Deutsch had been visiting the Middle East for decades. In At Prayer there are some compositional similarities with his earlier paintings of palace guards. The apparent and expressive focal points, such as the elaborate 19th Century north-western Persian carpet and the mother-of-pearl inlaid kursi are all archetypal elements of Deutsch's painting. Provenance with Mathaf Gallery, London (inv. no. S209). Acquired from the above by the present owner. Literature J.M. Mackenzie, Orientalism. History, theory and the arts, Manchester, 1995, p. 75 (illustrated and further illustrated on the cover). <br><b>Structural Condition</b><br>The artist's panel is providing an even and stable structural support.<br><br><b>Paint Surface</b><br>The paint surface has a relatively even varnish layer.<br>There is a very minor abrasion below the centre left of the upper edge. The paint surface has small scattered networks of very fine lines of craquelure. These appear entirely stable and are attributable to the natural drying processes of the artist's materials.<br>Inspection under ultraviolet light shows discoloured and slightly opaque varnish layers in places which prevent the ultraviolet light from fully penetrating. Inspection under ultraviolet light also shows very small spots and lines of retouching within the decorative wall towards the centre of the right edge and some further very small spots towards the upper right corner, very small<br>spots and lines of retouching within the floor and the base of the column in the lower left quadrant and a few small spots towards the centre of the left edge, a few very small spots and lines of retouching above the figure's head, and a small spot of retouching corresponding to the minor abrasion below the centre left of the upper edge. It should be noted that these<br>retouchings are all of minimal size.<br><br><b>Summary</b><br>The painting would therefore appear to be in very good and stable condition and would benefit from cleaning, restoration and revarnishing.<br>" />
Ludwig Deutsch - Austrian The Della'l, Cairo

Ludwig Deutsch - Austrian The Della'l, Cairo

Original 1883
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Lot number: 22
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Description:
Ludwig Deutsch AUSTRIAN THE DELLA'L, CAIRO 1855-1935 signed and datedL. Deutsch1883lower right oil on panel 32.5 by 24.5cm., 12¾ by 9¾in. Provenance Goupil, New York (according to label fragment on the reverse) Albert du Vannes, New York (no. 19) Private collection; thence by descent to the present owner
Ludwig Deutsch - Austrian The Della'l, Cairo

Ludwig Deutsch - Austrian The Della'l, Cairo

Original
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Lot number: 42
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Description:
Ludwig Deutsch

AUSTRIAN THE DELLA'L, CAIRO

1855-1935

signed L. Deutsch and dated 1883 (lower right) oil on panel 12 3/4 by 9 5/8 in. 32.4 by 24.4 cm

Provenance

Goupil, New York (according to label fragment on the reverse) Albert du Vannes, New York (no. 19) Private Collection Thence by descent

Catalogue Note

Painted in 1883, the present work is one of the earliest examples of Deutsch\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s most iconic Orientalist themes—a single male figure, silhouetted against an architecturally distinctive door or entrance way. The man\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s ankle-length black-and-white striped woolen abāya identifies him as an itinerant worker in this Egyptian scene; he is probably a della\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’l, or broker, hired by one of the local shopkeepers. As the noted nineteenth-century Arabic scholar Edward William Lane (1801-1876) explained, \“In many of the nooks of Cairo auctions are held on stated days. They are conducted by delláls, or brokers, hired either by persons who have anything they wish to sell in this manner, or by shopkeepers. The Delláls carry the goods up and down, announcing the sums bidden for them with cries of Harraj, harraj, etc." In Deutsch\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s painting, the man gestures emphatically and continues his familiar calls, though he has momentarily set down the eclectic array of goods he has been appointed to vend. The late nineteenth century saw both an unprecedented influx of imported goods into Cairo and a new appreciation of historical pieces, which had become the preferred souvenirs of European travelers. The still-life in the lower left features several of these objects, many of which would become favorite motifs of the artist, and would reappear in numerous compositions throughout his long and prolific career. A wooden table inlaid with mother-of-pearl, a gilt copper tombak (ewer), a misbaha, or string of prayer beads, Bedouin silver amulets, a silahlik (leather sash or tasseled cummerbund, here decorated with cowry shells), a finely carved pistol and janbiya (short dagger), and an overturned lantern from a mosque, with only some of its glass fittings intact, each demonstrate Deutsch's talent for depicting varied surfaces, textures, and patterns. To the right of this picturesque grouping, set against the mastaba or raised platform of the carved stone portal, is a sinter; Deutsch\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s appreciation of musical instruments—fueled in part by the revival in Europe of historical music and a renewed interest in Dutch genre painting of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries—would become another hallmark of his art. Though Deutsch\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s reliance on photographs for his detailed compositions—many of them purchased from the Cairo studio of G. Lékégian—and a virtual working library of props and souvenirs housed in his studios in France is well recorded, the early date of this painting suggests that it was based at least in part on sketches made on site. (Deutsch first traveled to Egypt in 1883, the same year in which The Della\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’l was painted.) The sense of immediacy and informality that results from this process is more pronounced here than elsewhere in Deutsch\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s oeuvre; later pictures are marked by a haunting stillness alongside a nearly photographic clarity, creating works that are both psychologically penetrating and unexpectedly modern, in their similarities to a film or production still. (Deutsch\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s seamless combination of the theatrical and cinematic with the chilling frigidity of a moment captured in time may have been partially indebted to the works of France\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s greatest Orientalist painter, Jean-Léon Gérôme [1824-1904]. Indeed, Deutsch even retains here that artist\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s archaic use of wooden panel, in order to achieve some of the saturated hues that Gérôme made famous.) These paintings, with The Della'l as their clear point of origin, would become highly influential, and would stand at the center of an entire school of Austrian Orientalism. The profound meanings of Deutsch\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s Orientalist paintings have often been ignored by art historians, glossed over and overshadowed by the sheer technical brilliance that is always on display. In the present work, Deutsch manages to create a deeply personal and surprisingly topical scene: As the della\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’l attempts to sell the finely wrought goods before him – a nostalgic tribute, perhaps, to handmade crafts, at a time when anxiety about industrialization was at its peak in Europe—so Deutsch was seeking to market his own, new subject matter and make a name for himself in the international art world. Deutsch\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s success in this endeavor is evidenced by the provenance of the painting – two of New York\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s most notable dealers, Goupil and Albert du Vannes, at one time possessed this work. Deutsch entered the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1872, and settled in Paris in 1878. There he befriended other Orientalist painters, including Arthur von Ferraris (1856-1936), Johann Discart (1856-?), and his lifelong friend Rudolf Ernst (1854-1932). After studying with the history painter Jean-Paul Laurens (1838-1921), Deutsch traveled to Egypt. His four excursions to that country, in 1883, 1886, 1890, and 1898, inspired hundreds of images of Middle Eastern life, which were exhibited to great acclaim at the Salon from 1881 forward. (Inspired by the success of his mentors and colleagues, Deutsch began his Orientalist career even before his first forays abroad.) In 1898, Deutsch earned an honorable mention at that institution, and, in 1900, he was awarded a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. Later he would receive the Chevalier de la Légion d\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’Honneur. In 1919, Deutsch gained French citizenship and, after a brief absence, began exhibiting again at the Paris Salon under the name \“Louis Deutsch.\” (It is assumed that Deutsch left France during World War I due to the official hostilities between France and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He may have ventured again to North Africa.) In an effort to stay current and revive what was now proving to be a waning genre, Deutsch\’\’\’\’\’\’\’\’s style in the years after 1910 flirted between the highly detailed technique for which he had become renowned, and the looser brushwork and more highly keyed palette of Post-Impressionism. This catalogue note was written by Dr. Emily M. Weeks.
Ludwig Deutsch - Morning Prayers

Ludwig Deutsch - Morning Prayers

Original 1902
Estimate:

Price:

Gross Price
Lot number: 9
Other WORKS AT AUCTION
Description:
Ludwig Deutsch

1855-1935

AUSTRIANMORNING PRAYERS

signed and dated
L.Deutsch PARIS 1902
upper leftoil on panel65 by 51.5cm., 25¾ by 20¼in.
Provenance
Sale: Sotheby's, New York, 29 May 1980, lot 107The Fine Arts Society, LondonAcquired from the above by the present owner
circa
1981
Literature
Martina Haja and Günther Wimmer,

LesOrientalistes des Ecoles allemande et autrichienne,
Paris,2000, p. 200, illustrated
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