Swann Galleries /Mar 2, 2017
€1,418.71 - €2,364.51
Artworks in Arcadja3116
Some works of Giorgio De ChiricoExtracted between 3,116 works in the catalog of Arcadja
Auction: Sotheby's -May 25, 2017 - LondonLot number: 37
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Giorgio de Chirico BOZZETTO PER L\\\’OPERA 'ORFEO' DI GLUCK (COSTUME PER UN PASTORE) (SKETCH FOR THE OPERA 'ORFEO' BY GLUCK (COSTUME OF A SHEPHERD)) signed g. de chirico (lower left); inscribed Un berger (upper right) and le dos (lower right) watercolour and pencil on paper 29.4 by 19.6cm., 11 5/8 by 7 3/4 in. Executed in 1971. Claudio Bruni Sakraischik (ed.), Catalogo Generale, Giorgio de Chirico, Milan, 1975, vol. V, no. 786, illustrated n.p.
Auction: Sotheby's -May 16, 2017 - New-yorkLot number: 15
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Giorgio de Chirico IL SOGNO DI TOBIA (THE DREAM OF TOBIAS) 1888 - 1978 Signed G. de Chirico (lower center) Oil on canvas 23 1/4 by 19 1/4 in. 59 by 49 cm Painted in April-August 1917. Signed G. de Chirico (lower center) Oil on canvas 23 1/4 by 19 1/4 in. 59 by 49 cm Painted in April-August 1917. Paul Guillaume, Paris (acquired by 1922) Paul Eluard, Paris (acquired by 1924) Thierry Gautier Vignal, Paris Edward James, West Dean, Chichester & London (acquired by 1963) Edward James Foundation, West Dean (acquired from the above by 1980) Galleria Galatea, Turin Private Collection, London (1987) Private Collection, Switzerland Massimo Martino Fine Arts, Mendrisio, Switzerland Acquired from the above by the present owner in 2007 Exhibited Paris, Galerie Paul Guillaume, Exposition Giorgio de Chirico, 1922, no. 27 Worthing, Worthing Art Gallery; Eastbourne, Towner Art Gallery & London, South London Art Gallery, Paintings from the Edward James Collection, 1963-64, no. 10 Rome, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Giorgio de Chirico, 1981-82, no. 14, illustrated in the catalogue New York, The Museum of Modern Art & London, Tate Gallery, De Chirico, 1982, n.n., illustrated in the catalogue Munich, Haus der Kunst & Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, Giorgio de Chirico der Metaphysiker, 1983, no. 54, illustrated in color in the catalogue Paris, Musée National d\’\’\’\’Art Moderne, André Breton: La beauté convulsive, 1991, n.n., illustrated in color in the catalogue (with incorrect dimensions) Turin, Fondazione Palazzo Bricherasio, Fernand Léger. L\’\’\’\’oggetto e il suo contesto 1920-1940, 1996, no. 44, illustrated in color in the catalogue Dusseldorf, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen & Munich, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Die andere Moderne – De Chirico/Savinio, 2001-02, no. 68, illustrated in color in the catalogue Padua, Palazzo Zabarella, De Chirico, 2007, no. 33, illustrated in color in the catalogue Literature Malcolm Haslam, The Real World of The Surrealists, London, 1978, illustrated in color p. 24 (as dating from circa 1914) De Luca Editore, ed., Le Rêve de Tobie\’\’\’\’ un interno ferrarese, 1917 e le origini del Surrealismo, Rome, 1980, illustrated in color p. 6; illustrated p. 23 and detail illustrated p. 37 William Rubin, ed., De Chirico, New York, 1982, illustrated pl. 75 Jean-Charles Gateau, Eluard, Picasso et la peinture (1936-1952), Geneva, 1983, listed p. 340 Maurizio Fagiolo dell\’\’\’\’Arco, L\’\’\’\’Opera completa di De Chirico 1908-1924, Milan, 1984, no. 116, illustrated p. 100; illustrated in color pl. XXXI Claudio Bruni Sakraischik, Catalogo Generale Giorgio de Chirico, Volume Ottavo, Opere dal 1908 al 1930*, Milan, 1987, vol. VIII, no. 476, illustrated n.p. (dated 1917-18) Maurizio Fagiolo dell\’\’\’\’Arco, Giorgio de Chirico all\’\’\’\’epoca del Surrealismo (exhibition catalogue), Galleria del Sogno, Lugano, 1991, illustrated p. 25 Paolo Baldacci, De Chirico 1888-1919. La metafisica, Milan, 1997, no. 128, illustrated in color p. 364 A Surreal Life: Edward James 1907-1984 (exhibition catalogue), Brighton Museum & Art Gallery, Brighton, 1998, illustrated in color p. 60 Riccardo Dottori, "De Chirico Curated By Paolo Baldacci And Gerd Roos Palazzo Zabarella, Padua, January 2007" in Metafisica, no. 7-8, 2008, mentioned p. 741 Claudio Crescentini, Giorgio de Chirico. L\’\’\’\’Enigma velato, Rome, 2009, pl. XIX, illustrated in color p. 250 Il Sogno di Tobia (The Dream of Tobias) is a stunning, enigmatic composition painted at the height of De Chirico's Metaphysical period. Created the same year he formally founded the Scuola Metafisica, this work is one of only six canvases he completed during his stay at the Villa Seminario, which coincided with that of Carlo Carrà's residence at the same location. The term \“Metaphysical\” had first been given to De Chirico's paintings in 1914 by the French poet Guillaume Apollinaire and referred to the enigmatic quality of his urban landscapes. De Chirico's best Metaphysical compositions, like this one, are oddly devoid of any life, exposing the evocative and melancholic power of inanimate objects. The philosophical objectives of these paintings drew upon an amalgam of the teachings of the German philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer and Otto Weininger. De Chirico also took his inspiration from the spatial distortions of the Cubists in the early years of the twentieth century and emphasized the deep recesses and angularity of Renaissance and Neo-Classical buildings. These influences are visible in the present work in the overlapping geometric forms and intersecting lines of perspective. The sharp diagonals spreading outwards from the center of the canvas allude to the linear perspective employed by the Renaissance masters, yet De Chirico subverts their scientific approach to create a destabilizing, unsettling sense of space. While the fifteenth-century Florentine masters deployed linear perspective to create an illusion of a deep, rationally ordered space, De Chirico's art is a subversive interpretation of this painterly technique, and by overturning its logic and order it attempts to communicate the bewildering dislocation of space and time that was a result of the technological, cultural and scientific advances of the modern age. The present work was executed during De Chirico's stay in Ferrara during the First World War, where he was sent for military duty after his return from Paris. His paintings from the Ferrara period display a specific iconography including imaginary maps, biscuits and semi-abstract, quasi-architectural elements. In April of 1917, De Chirico was sent to the Military Reserve Hospital for Nervous Disorders at the Villa del Seminario. Operated by the Catholic church (the villa belonged to Cardinal Boschi the Ferrarese Archbishop), the Red Cross and the Army, it is not certain how many officers posted at the Villa were there out of medical necessity or simply those with connections that enabled them to spend time away from their military service. De Pisis, who visited Carrà and De Chirico at the Villa described it as \“In a quiet eighteenth-century patrician villa in the countryside, once site of the honest summer activities of the Seminary, the painters de Chirico and Carrà, dressed in army fatigues, alternated between military idleness and Metaphysical painting\” (reproduced in Paolo Baldacci, 1997, op. cit., p. 359). De Chirico and Carrà would remain at the Villa until August of 1917. In Il Sogno di Tobia (The Dream of Tobias), De Chirico pushes the iconography of his Metaphysical works past the previous Ferrarese paintings, which incorporated imagery such as maps and biscuits. Here, in an ambiguous interior space we find a picture-within a picture in the Metaphysical landscape at right and the interior room, empty but for a large metal fishing lure, at left. Behind this work a blue box and geometric armatures project into the receding space of the background. The center of the composition is dominated by a large central column, tapering towards the top, a thermometer bracketed to its center and the word Aidel written in descending vertical text. Paolo Baldacci analyzed the iconography and metaphor of the imagery presented here: \“The painting\’\’\’\’s title, Le rêve de Tobie, suggests that the work is a metaphor of revelation, of a vision of the invisible, and indeed the iconography supports such a reading. In the apocryphal book of the Bible, Tobias is instructed by an angel to catch a fish and, smearing the liver on the blind eyes of his father, restoring his vision. The zinc lure…alludes to the fish caught by Tobias…. The letters on the obelisk are from the Greek work \‘a(v)idelon,\’\’\’\’ meaning invisible…. The thermometer alludes in a rather ironic way to the god Mercury, or Hermes… messenger of the gods. Greek mythology and Biblical mythology are thus conflated\” (P. Baldacci, ibid., p. 362). De Chirico's Metaphysical paintings laid the foundation for Surrealist iconography, which was to flourish in the following decade. Creating a world of enigma and uncertainty, verging between dream and reality, and depicting a condition which André Breton described as the \“irremediable human anxiety,\” De Chirico's Metaphysical works had a tremendous influence on the development of Surrealist theories and aesthetic. It was these \“powerful conceptions, so dramatically expressed in his paintings, [that] served as a spiritual point of departure for the Surrealists and provided a direct, significant, and substantial contribution to Surrealist art\” (De Chirico, New York, 1980, p. 113). The importance of De Chirico's mysterious and melancholic compositions is reflected in the provenance of the present work: De Chirico sent Il Sogno di Tobia (The Dream of Tobias) to his dealer Paul Guillaume shortly after it was completed, along with the other paintings he created at the Villa del Seminario. It was shown in his solo exhibition at Galerie Paul Guillaume in 1922 and was acquired in short order by the legendary Surrealist poet Paul Eluard. Il Sogno di Tobia (The Dream of Tobias) appears in the background of Man Ray\’\’\’\’s 1924 First Surrealist Group Photograph, hanging on the wall behind André Breton. Several decades later it would enter the collection of Edward James who assembled one of the most notable collections of Surrealist Art of the twentieth century. James indeed credited De Chirico for his passion as a collector. Dawn Ades wrote that \“James had an extraordinary and prescient eye, and passionately loved his paintings, an addiction that apparently stemmed from seeing a de Chirico in a dealer\’\’\’\’s window in Paris\” (A Surreal Life: Edward James 1907-1984, op.cit. p. 73).
Other WORKS AT AUCTION
551 GIORGIO DE CHIRCO Tempio del Sole. Etching on tan Chine collé, 1969. 640x490 mm; 25 1/4x19 3/8 inches, full margins. Artist's proof, aside from the edition of 50. Signed, titled and inscribed "P . d. A (Incisione)" in pencil, lower margin, with the artist's blind stamp, lower left. Printed by Alberto Caprini, Rome. A very good impression. Brandani 1
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Sale 2437 Lot 604 GIORGIO DE CHIRICO Castore ed il suo cavallo. Color lithograph on Japan paper, 1970. 340x415 mm; 13 1/2x16 1/2 inches, full margins. Edition of 26. Signed, titled and lettered "G" in pencil, lower margin. Printed by Alberto Caprini, Rome, with the blind stamp lower right. A very good impression with strong colors. Brandani 107
Auction: Christie's -Feb 28, 2017 - LondonLot number: 105
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Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978) Guerrieri e filosofi Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978) Guerrieri e filosofi signed ‘G. de Chirico’’’’’’’’ (upper left) oil on board 25 5/8 x 21 1/8 in. (64.9 x 53.6 cm.) Painted circa 1928 This work is sold with a photo-certificate from the Fondazione Giorgio e Isa de Chirico, Rome. ‘“Here we are!” said Hebdomeros, throwing his arms out in front of his companions, in the classic pose of a captain prudently halting the charge of his men. They were coming to the threshold of a vast, high-ceilinged room, decorated in the style of 1880; the lighting and general atmosphere of this room, which was completely bare of furniture, reminded one of the gaming rooms at Monte Carlo; in a corner two gladiators wearing diving helmets were practicing half-heartedly, watched by a bored instructor, a retired gladiator with eyes like a vulture and a body covered with scars. “Gladiators!’’’’’’’’ There’’’’’’’’s an enigma in that word,’’’’’’’’ said Hebdomeros, speaking in a low voice to the younger of his companions. And he thought of the music halls whose brightly lit ceilings conjure up visions of Dante’’’’’’’’s paradise; he also thought of those afternoons in Rome, when the games would be over for the day and the sun sinking lower in the sky, the immense canopy over the arena augmenting the evening shadows, and smells floating up from the sawdust and blood-soaked sand...Vision of Rome, when the world was young, Anguish at nightfall a sailor’’’’’’’’s song’’’’’’’’ (Giorgio de Chirico, 1929, quoted in Hebdomeros, Cambridge, 1992, p. 3). Belonging to the Art Institute of Chicago since 1954, Guerrieri e filosofi (Warriors and Philosophers) is one of a dramatic series of gladiatoral paintings that appeared regularly in De Chirico’’’’’’’’s work during the late 1920s and early 1930s. These mysterious paintings depicting strange, almost comic, claustrophobic battles between gladiators and other classical figures inside a bourgeois interior are a close echo of various scenes that appear in De Chirico’’’’’’’’s famous 1929 novel Hebdomeros. This acknowledged masterpiece of Surrealist literature was a story in which the hero of the novel (a Ulysses like alter-ego of De Chirico named ‘Hebdomeros’’’’’’’’) undertakes an apparently hallucinatory or dream-like Odyssey through a bizarre Mediterranean world beyond time. Throughout the novel, the hero encounters a series of strange apparitions and events in which the worlds of classical antiquity and of 1920s normality are frequently intertwined. The sudden appearance of fighting gladiators struggling in drawing rooms or becoming petrified on railway stations and squabbling in corners occurs throughout the novel. Like many aspects of De Chirico’’’’’’’’s tale these figures represent the apparent collision of two disparate realities clashing to form a new metaphysical realm outside of conventional time and place. De Chirico defined this realm as that of the ‘enigma’’’’’’’’. ‘The enigma of this magnificent group of warriors, who in one corner of a room formed a polychrome block immobile in its gestures of attack and defence,’’’’’’’’ De Chirico wrote, however, was one ‘basically only understood by (Hebdomeros) himself’’’’’’’’ (Giorgio de Chirico, Hebdomeros, 1929, cited in M. Holzhe, Giorgio de Chirico, Cologne, 2005, p. 78). Much the same can be said of De Chirico’’’’’’’’s paintings of gladiators from this same period for, although they are clearly a part of de Chirico’’’’’’’’s classical Mediterranean world of metaphysical mystery and magic, their purpose or function is less clear. Despite the often furious complexity and violence of their battling, in de Chirico’’’’’’’’s hands the futility of their struggle is always accentuated and these warriors often appear as comic, pathetic or bizarrely irrelevant figures. Strangely, they often seem less animate in many ways, than the horses and ruins on De Chirico’’’’’’’’s beaches or the tragic mannequin poets or architectonic philosophers embedded in thought in their armchairs. The origin of De Chirico’’’’’’’’s gladiators lies in a series of large decorative panels which the artist made for the house of his dealer Léonce Rosenberg, where the Gladiatori took on the characteristic of architectural-type figures as opposed to human beings. There, groups of these statuesque-like figures became reminiscent of the bizarre collations of furniture in the landscape that de Chirico also frequently painted at this time. It is this aspect of the Gladiatori that is explored in Guerrieri e filosofi, a work which combines the figures of warriors standing like statues conversing with figures of statue-like philosophers who appear to have become animated and transformed into flesh (a grisaille rendering of a statue or of a relief of a philosopher appears on the wall behind the two bearded and ‘living’’’’’’’’ philosophers donning marble-like robes in the centre of the painting). These bearded figures are animate, corporeal counterparts to De Chirico’’’’’’’’s mannequin-style philosophers who were usually faceless statuesque figures that the artist set into unusual domestic locations such as armchairs or bourgeois interiors in order to reinvigorate them. ‘Long ago we grew accustomed to seeing statues in museums’’’’’’’’ De Chirico wrote in this respect: ‘To find newer and more mysterious properties we must have recourse to new combinations. For example: the statue in a bedroom, alone or in the company of living persons, could provide a new sensation especially if one sees to it that its feet, instead of standing on a pedestal, stand directly on the floor. Or one thinks of the impression made by a statue in a real armchair or leaning out a real window’’’’’’’’ (Giorgio de Chirico, ‘Statues Furniture and Generals’’’’’’’’, in G. de Chirico, Hebdomeros, Cambridge, 1992, pp. 243-244). In this work, the statue-like philosophers and warriors have become one bizarre, collective entity compressed into the corner of a room like stacked furniture. Such ‘compact groups of philosophers and warriors’’’’’’’’ created strange singular monuments, de Chirico pointed out in Hebdomeros. They became ‘veritable multi-headed blocks with bright and delicate colours [that] held mysterious confabulations in the corners of low-ceilinged rooms at the point where the cornice joining the walls to the ceiling formed a right angle’’’’’’’’ (Giorgio de Chirico, 1929, quoted in J. De Sanna, De Chirico and the Mediterranean, New York, 1998, p. 248). At the same time each single figure in this work seems lost and isolated, their eyes all looking pensively in different directions. De Chirico stated that many of his Gladiatori from this period were often intended as a satire on the characters of the art world who, since his violent split with Breton and the Paris Surrealists in the mid-1920s, had also turned against him. Through the depiction of such epic classical figures of history now reduced to a motley crowd seemingly lost in the corner of a room, de Chirico evidently found a humorous means of both mocking his detractors and celebrating the classical tradition that he so loved. As Waldemar George has also pointed out about these works in this respect, De Chirico, ‘like the sculptors of the Late Roman Empire…created a sense of space (an ideal space) out of the mere convergence of glances – the language of the eyes. His isolated figures have no relation to the exterior world […] They mark the abandoning of proportional norms and articulation. The relationships they establish among themselves acquire a magical meaning’’’’’’’’ (W. George, 1930, quoted in J. De Sanna, De Chirico and the Mediterranean, New York, 1998, p. 258).