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Apollonio Di Giovanni

(1415 -  1465 )
APOLLONIO DI GIOVANNI The Triumph Of Scipio Africanus

Sotheby's
Jan 27, 2011
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Artworks in Arcadja
15

Some works of Apollonio Di Giovanni

Extracted between 15 works in the catalog of Arcadja
 Apollonio Di Giovanni - The Battle Of Pharsalus

Apollonio Di Giovanni - The Battle Of Pharsalus

Original
Estimate:

Price:

Gross Price
Lot number: 59
Other WORKS AT AUCTION
Description:
Apollonio di Giovanni (Florence circa 1415/17–1465) The Battle of Pharsalus, tempera with gold on panel, a cassone panel, 40.5 x 157.2 cm, framed Provenance: Collection of Eugène Piot (1812–1890), Paris; his sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, 21-24 May 1890, lot 553; where purchased by Émile Gavet (1830–1904), Paris; Collection Edward Julius Berwind (1848–1936), Newport, Rhode Island, New York; his sale, Parke-Bernet, New York, 9 November 1939, lot 27; purchased by Acquavella Galleries, New York; Private European collection; thence by descent to the present owner Literature: Catalogue des objects d’’’’’’’’art de la Renaissance. Tableaux composant la collection du feu M. Eugène Piot, Hotel Drouot 21-24 May 1890, lot 553 (as Florentine School, first half of the 15th century); P. Schubring, Cassoni Truhen und Truhenbilder der italienischen Frührenaissance, Leipzig 1915, cat. no. 113 (as the Anghiari Master)
 Apollonio Di Giovanni - Triumph Of Marcus Furius Camillus, A Cassone Panel

Apollonio Di Giovanni - Triumph Of Marcus Furius Camillus, A Cassone Panel

Original 1465
Estimate:

Price:

Gross Price
Lot number: 3
Other WORKS AT AUCTION
Description:
Collection of Baron Edmond de Rothschild, Château de Ferrières;

Seized by the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg from the Chateau de Ferrières (inv. no. BOR 58);

In the holdings of the German Embassy, Paris;

Recovered by the Monuments Men at the Buxheim Monastery, Bavaria, and restituted to the Rothschild family 1946/7 (chest number 134);

From whom most probably acquired directly by the father of the present owner.

3

Apollonio di Giovanni

FLORENCE CIRCA 1416 - 1465

TRIUMPH OF MARCUS FURIUS CAMILLUS, A CASSONE PANEL

tempera and gold leaf on panel

16 3/4 by 63 1/3 in.; 42.5 by 161 cm.

USD

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 Apollonio Di Giovanni - The Triumph Of Scipio Africanus

Apollonio Di Giovanni - The Triumph Of Scipio Africanus

Original
Estimate:

Price:

Gross Price
Lot number: 118
Other WORKS AT AUCTION
Description:
LOT 118
PROPERTY FROM THE ESTATE OF JAN MITCHELL
APOLLONIO DI GIOVANNI
FLORENCE CIRCA 1416 - 1465
THE TRIUMPH OF SCIPIO AFRICANUS
inscribed: SCIPIONE.AFC
tempera and gold leaf on panel
300,000—500,000 USD
measurements note
15 3/4 by 24 in.; 40 by 61 cm.
inscribed: SCIPIONE.AFC
Gambier-Perry Collection, Highnam Court, Gloucestershire;Gustave Rau, Stuttgart;By whom anonymously sold, Sotheby's, London, 20 April 1988, lot 1(as attributed to Apollonio di Giovanni), to Hazlitt;From whom purchased by the present collector.
M. Boskovits, ed., The Alana Collection: Italian Paintings fromthe 13th to 15th Century, Florence 2009, pp. 32-35, under no. 6,reproduced fig. 6a.
The present work can be linked to another panel, of nearlyidentical dimensions and similarly inscribed, depicting The Triumphof Caesar, formerly in the collection of Lord Farrington. Thatpanel was sold, New York, Christie's, 25 January 2002, lot 21 andis now in the Alana Collection (see Literature and fig. 1). As ispointed out in the entry on the Triumph of Caesar in the AlanaCollection catalogue, the linking of the Triumph of Caesar and theTriumph of Scipio Africanus relates to a humanist debate that waswell-known at the time these panels were made and that sought toestablish the superiority of Scipio, the republican, over Caesar,the tyrant (see Literature). In both panels, Apollonio di Giovannihas painted the processions before settings of famous ancient Romanmonuments including the Pantheon, Colosseum and Trajan's column,all well known to Apollonio's clientele, but not contemporaneouswith the stories depicted.Although the iconography of both panels would be typical for acassone or marriage chest, and relate to Apollonio'swell-established promotion of antique themes, they are much smallerthan was typical and have therefore been considered to be fragmentsin the past (see Literature). This hypothesis has been called intoquestion, however, because both depict complete vignettes, and inthe present panel, three of the four edges seem to be intact andoriginal. It has been suggested instead that these two scenesformed the end panels of a cassone; however, their size and theimportance of their iconography would seem to eliminate this as apossibility as well. Two alternate theories seem to be moreplausible: it could be that these two panels formed the fronts of apair of cassoni, or that they functioned as parts of a spalliera, adecorative frieze inset into a bed or other piece of furniture, orplaced into the wainscotting of a room.The Triumph of Scipio has particularly important provenance, havingbelonged to the Gambier–Perry collection in London. The Gambier–Perry were notable collectors of Medieval and Renaissance Art,including works by Fra Angelico, Lorenzo Monaco and Bernardo Daddi,amongst others. Much of this distinguishd group now forms the basisof the Renaissance collection at the Courtauld Institute in London.It was suggested by Everett Fahy that The Triumph of Caesar pendantpanel once belonged to the Pucci family, who were an extremelyimportant and influential family in Renaissance Florence. The basisof this assumption is the appearance of their emblem, theblack-a-moor, two of which appear seated on horseback, drivingCaesar's chariot.
Gambier-Perry Collection, Highnam Court, Gloucestershire;Gustave Rau, Stuttgart;By whom anonymously sold, Sotheby's, London, 20 April 1988, lot 1(as attributed to Apollonio di Giovanni), to Hazlitt;From whom purchased by the present collector.
M. Boskovits, ed., The Alana Collection: Italian Paintings fromthe 13th to 15th Century, Florence 2009, pp. 32-35, under no. 6,reproduced fig. 6a.
The present work can be linked to another panel, of nearlyidentical dimensions and similarly inscribed, depicting The Triumphof Caesar, formerly in the collection of Lord Farrington. Thatpanel was sold, New York, Christie's, 25 January 2002, lot 21 andis now in the Alana Collection (see Literature and fig. 1). As ispointed out in the entry on the Triumph of Caesar in the AlanaCollection catalogue, the linking of the Triumph of Caesar and theTriumph of Scipio Africanus relates to a humanist debate that waswell-known at the time these panels were made and that sought toestablish the superiority of Scipio, the republican, over Caesar,the tyrant (see Literature). In both panels, Apollonio di Giovannihas painted the processions before settings of famous ancient Romanmonuments including the Pantheon, Colosseum and Trajan's column,all well known to Apollonio's clientele, but not contemporaneouswith the stories depicted.Although the iconography of both panels would be typical for acassone or marriage chest, and relate to Apollonio'swell-established promotion of antique themes, they are much smallerthan was typical and have therefore been considered to be fragmentsin the past (see Literature). This hypothesis has been called intoquestion, however, because both depict complete vignettes, and inthe present panel, three of the four edges seem to be intact andoriginal. It has been suggested instead that these two scenesformed the end panels of a cassone; however, their size and theimportance of their iconography would seem to eliminate this as apossibility as well. Two alternate theories seem to be moreplausible: it could be that these two panels formed the fronts of apair of cassoni, or that they functioned as parts of a spalliera, adecorative frieze inset into a bed or other piece of furniture, orplaced into the wainscotting of a room.The Triumph of Scipio has particularly important provenance, havingbelonged to the Gambier–Perry collection in London. The Gambier–Perry were notable collectors of Medieval and Renaissance Art,including works by Fra Angelico, Lorenzo Monaco and Bernardo Daddi,amongst others. Much of this distinguishd group now forms the basisof the Renaissance collection at the Courtauld Institute in London.It was suggested by Everett Fahy that The Triumph of Caesar pendantpanel once belonged to the Pucci family, who were an extremelyimportant and influential family in Renaissance Florence. The basisof this assumption is the appearance of their emblem, theblack-a-moor, two of which appear seated on horseback, drivingCaesar's chariot.
 Apollonio Di Giovanni - A Battle Before A Walled City, Perhaps The Siege Of Assisi

Apollonio Di Giovanni - A Battle Before A Walled City, Perhaps The Siege Of Assisi

Original 1465
Estimate:

Price:

Gross Price
Lot number: 33
Other WORKS AT AUCTION
Description:
tempera with gold and silver on panel, a
cassone

panel
PROVENANCE
Eugène Piot, Paris; His deceased sale, Paris, Hotel Drouot, May 21-24, 1890, lot
554; Emile Gavet; His sale, Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, June 9, 1897, lot
731; With Julius Böhler, Munich, by 1915; William Gwinn Mather, thence by decent.
LITERATURE AND REFERENCES
P. Schubring, Cassoni, Truhen und Truhenbilder der
italienischen Frührenaissance, Leipzig 1915, pp. 249-250, cat.
no. 126, reproduced, table XXIV; E. Callmann, Apollonio di Giovanni, 1974, p. 86 (under
rejected works).
CATALOGUE NOTE
This painting once formed the front panel of a cassone or marriage chest, a form of luxurious furniture popular in
Northern Italy, particularly in Tuscany, from the 14th to the 16th
Century. Cassoni were usually commissioned in pairs in
honor of a wedding, and while they were originally used for more
practical purposes, presumably such as the storage of linens and
other items included in the bride's dowry, by the early 15th
Century they had become elite items, meant to convey the
intermarrying families' wealth and social status. By the middle
decades of the 15th Century, biblical scenes or episodes from
classical history were often depicted, sometimes of extremely
rarefied subject matter (as is, indeed, the case of the present
example), thus presumably allowing the patron to display his own
scholarly sophistication.
Although they were sometimes painted by artists who had more
standard practices, cassoni were usually painted by
specialists who produced them and other related types of paintings,
such as spalliere and deschi da parto. In fact,
the painter of the present panel, Apollonio di Giovanni was perhaps
the most prolific, well-documented and fashionable artist with such
a practice working in Florence in the mid-fifteenth century. He was
active in Florence, from the late 1430's until the mid 1460's, and
much of that time appears to have been in partnership with a
certain Marco del Buono, whose artistic participation in the studio
(if any) remains unclear. 1. Apollonio's work had been
isolated under a number of different working names; after the
discovery in 1902 of his bottega's book of commissions, however, it
was possible to identify a number of cassoni securely as the
work of Apollonio.2
Based on the account book, it is clear that Apollonio's practice
was highly lucrative and busy, and the patrons listed in it came
from Florence's most important families: the Medici, Rucellai,
Guicciardini, Benci, Ginori and the Strozzi amongst others. While
it is not possible to ascertain who the owner of the present panel
was, its mate can be identified. When the picture was in the Piot
collection (see provenance), the painting was paired with a picture
representing the Battle of Pharsalus, which included a
depiction of the death of Pompey (now in a private collection,
Italy). The subject of the present panel has also remained somewhat
obscure. When the panel was published by Schubring (see literature)
it was identified as Constantine before the Walls of
Jerusalem
.3
This event,
in fact, appears to never have occurred, as the city of Jersusalem
had remained firmly in the hands of the empire throughout
Constantine's reign. The city represented has no landmarks to
suggest that it is, in fact, Jerusalem at all. The key to the
subject would appear to be the figure of the woman in the upper
left of the cassone and the banner held by the advancing
knight in the middle of the composition. The black eagle on a gold
ground was the insignia of the Holy Roman Emperor, most likely that
of Frederick II "Stupor Mundi" whose involvement in Italian
politics was significant. The figure of the woman standing on the
hill appears to be dressed in the habit of a Franciscan nun, and
may represent Saint Clare, whose intervention saved the town of
Assisi from the siege of the emperor's troops under the leadership
of Vitale d'Aversa. However, the particulars of the story do not
correspond exactly. Whatever the exact subject, the present
cassone's reappearance has allowed its stylistic reappraisal
and thus becomes an important addition to Apollonio's known
oeuvre.
We are grateful to Everett Fahy for confirming this work to be
by Apollonio di Giovanni, on the basis of photographs. 1 See E. Callmann, Apollonio di Giovanni, Oxford 1974,
pp.5-6. 2 This identification, however, occurred only some years later, in
1944. Wolfgang Stechow was able to identify the coats of arms on
the cassone in the collection of the Allen Art Museum,
Oberlin, Ohio, which belonged to the Ruccelai and the Vettori.
Since only one marriage occurred in the 15th Century
between these two aristocratic families (in 1463 between Caterina
Ruccellai and Piero Francesco di Paolo Vettori), Stechow was able
to deduce that the cassone listed in Apollonio's order book
(which lists the patrons but not the subjects of the paintings on
the chests) for these families was that in Oberlin, and thus was
able stylistically to unite a number of other cassoni rightfully under Apollonio's name, which had previously been
masquerading under various working monikers, such as the "Dido
Master", the "Virgil Master" and the "Master of the Jarves
Cassoni". Cf. Stechow, Wolfgang. "Marco del Buono and Apollonio di
Giovanni, Cassone Painters." AllenMemorial Art
MuseumBulletin 1 (1944), pp. 5-21. 3 "Rechts die grosse Stadt Jerusalem....Constantin kämpft unter
der Flagge des die Flügel breitenden Adlers. Links oben di Zelte
Constantins; in dem einen schläftt der Köning. Ihm erscheint in
Traum seine Mutter Helena.. [Right, the great city of
Jerusalem... Constantine camps under the flag of the spread-winged
eagle. At upper left is the tent of Constantine; in which the king
is sleeping. His mother Helen appears to him in a dream]."
 Apollonio Di Giovanni - The Triumph Of Caesar

Apollonio Di Giovanni - The Triumph Of Caesar

Original
Estimate:

Price:

Gross Price
Lot number: 21
Other WORKS AT AUCTION
Description:
APOLLONIO DI GIOVANNI (Florence 1416-1465)

The Triumph of Caesar

inscribed '.CESARE.' (upper center)

tempera on gold ground panel

16 5/8 x 24½ in. (42.2 x 62.2 cm.)
Provenance
Lord Farrington; Sotheby's, London, 13 June 1934, lot 140.

W.B. Chamberlain, Hove, Sussex; Christie's, London, 25 February
1939, lot 39.
Literature
E.H. Gombrich, 'Apollonio de Giovanni: A Florentine Cassone
Workshop Seen Through the Eyes of a Humanist Poet', Journal of the
Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 18 (1955), p. 12, fig. b and p.
22, note 2.

E. Callman, Apollonio di Giovanni, Oxford, 1974, p. 73, no. 52, pl.
205.
Lot Notes
We are grateful to Mr. Everett Fahy for confirming the
attribution having examined the painting in the original. Mr. Fahy
(private communication, 3 December 2001) notes that the present
work can be linked to another panel -- of near identical dimensions
and similarly inscribed -- depicting The Triumph of Scipio
(formerly in the Gambier-Parry collection; sold, Sotheby's, London,
20 November 1988, lot 1). Since the edges of both panels have not
been trimmed, they are unlikely to be, as Callman (loc. cit.)
suggests, fragments cut from a cassone. More probably they were
simply removed from some other piece of furniture or wainscoting
into which they were once inserted.

In both works, the artist sets the procession before a capriccio of
Roman monuments, which, in the present composition, includes the
Pantheon, the church of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli and the Colosseum.
The same view of Rome recurs in another Triumph of Scipio, in the
Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Commenting on the 'high quality' of
the present work, Mr. Fahy has suggested that it was probably
commissioned by the Pucci family of Florence, whose coat-of-arms
included the blackamoor, seen here in the procession.
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